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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 13, 2017

Registration No. 333-            

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM S-4

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

CALLON PETROLEUM COMPANY

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

State of Delaware   1311   64-0844345
(State or other jurisdiction of   (Primary standard industrial   (I.R.S. Employer
incorporation or organization)   classification code number)   Identification No.)

200 North Canal Street,

Natchez Mississippi 39120

(601) 442-1601

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrants’ principal executive offices)

 

 

Joseph C. Gatto, Jr.

President, Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer

200 North Canal Street

Natchez, Mississippi 39120

(601) 442-1601

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

Copy to:

William B. Nelson

Haynes and Boone, LLP

1221 McKinney Street, Suite 2100

Houston, Texas 77010

(713) 547-2084

 

 

 

Exact Name of Additional Registrant  

Jurisdiction of

Incorporation/Organization

 

I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number

Callon Petroleum Operating Company   Delaware   94-0744280

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale of the securities to the public: As soon as practicable after the Registration Statement becomes effective.

If the securities being registered on this form are being offered in connection with the formation of a holding company and there is compliance with General Instruction G, check the following box.  ☐

If this form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the

Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer   ☐  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)    Smaller reporting company  

If applicable, place an X in the box to designate the appropriate rule provision relied upon in conducting this transaction:

Exchange Act Rule 13e-4(i) (Cross-Border Tender Offer)  ☐

Exchange Act Rule 14d-1(d) (Cross-Border Third-Party Tender Offer)  ☐

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of Each Class of Securities to be Registered  

Amount

to be Registered

 

Proposed

Maximum

Offering Price

Per Unit

 

Proposed

Maximum
Aggregate

Offering Price

 

Amount of

Registration Fee

6.125% Senior Notes due 2024

  $400,000,000   100%   $400,000,000   $46,360 (1)

Guarantees of 6.125% Senior Notes due 2024

  N/A   N/A   N/A   (2)

 

 

(1) Calculated in accordance with Rule 457(f)(2) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
(2) No separate fee is payable pursuant to Rule 457(n) under the Securities Act of 1933

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 


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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED APRIL 13, 2017

PROSPECTUS

 

LOGO

Callon Petroleum

Company

Offer to exchange its 6.125% Senior Notes due 2024, which have been registered under the Securities Act of 1933, for any and all of its outstanding unregistered 6.125% Senior Notes due 2024

The exchange offer and withdrawal rights will expire at 5:00 p.m., New York City time, on                     , 2017, unless extended.

We are offering to exchange up to $400,000,000 in aggregate principal amount of our new 6.125% Senior Notes due 2024, which have been registered under the Securities Act of 1933, referred to in this prospectus as the “new notes,” for any and all of our outstanding unregistered 6.125% senior notes due 2024 referred to in this prospectus as the “old notes.” We issued the old notes on October 3, 2016 in a transaction not requiring registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). We are offering you new notes, with terms identical in all material respects to those of the old notes, in exchange for old notes in order to satisfy our registration obligations from that previous transaction. The new notes and the old notes are collectively referred to in this prospectus as the “notes.”

Material Terms of the Exchange Offer

 

    The exchange offer expires at 5:00 p.m., New York City time, on                     , 2017, unless we extend it.

 

    All outstanding old notes that are validly tendered and not validly withdrawn before the exchange offer expires will be exchanged.

 

    You may withdraw your tender of old notes any time before the exchange offer expires.

 

    The terms of the new notes are identical in all material respects to those of the old notes, except that the new notes will not have securities law transfer restrictions or registration rights and the new notes will not provide for the payment of additional interest under circumstances relating to the timing of the exchange offer.

 

    We will not receive any proceeds from the exchange offer.

 

    No established trading market for the old notes or the new notes currently exists. The new notes will not be listed on any securities exchange or included in any automated quotation system.

 

    The exchange of notes will not be a taxable event for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

Each broker-dealer that receives new notes for its own account pursuant to the exchange offer must acknowledge that it will deliver a prospectus in connection with any resale of such new notes. The letter of transmittal for the exchange offer states that by so acknowledging and by delivering a prospectus, a broker-dealer will not be deemed to admit that it is an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act. This prospectus, as it may be amended or supplemented from time to time, may be used by a broker-dealer in connection with resales of new notes received in exchange for old notes where such old notes were acquired by such broker-dealer as a result of market-making activities or other trading activities. We have agreed that for a period of one year beginning when the new notes are issued to make this prospectus available to any broker-dealer for use in connection with any such resale. See “Plan of Distribution.”

See “Risk Factors” starting on page 8 of this prospectus for a discussion of risks associated with investing in the new notes and with the exchange of old notes for the new notes offered hereby.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this prospectus is                     , 2017


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This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC. In making your investment decision, you should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and in the accompanying letter of transmittal. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with any other information. If you receive any unauthorized information, you must not rely on it. We are not making an offer to sell these securities or soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where an offer or solicitation is not authorized or in which the person making that offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone whom it is unlawful to make an offer or solicitation. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus or in the documents incorporated by reference herein, is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front cover of this prospectus or the date of such incorporated documents, as the case may be.

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     ii  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     1  

RISK FACTORS

     8  

RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

     15  

THE EXCHANGE OFFER

     16  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     22  

DESCRIPTION OF NEW NOTES

     23  

CERTAIN UNITED STATES FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

     76  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     77  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     78  

LEGAL MATTERS

     79  

EXPERTS

     79  

ANNEX A — LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

     A-1  

This prospectus incorporates important business and financial information about us that is not included or delivered with this prospectus. Such information is available without charge to holders of old notes upon written or oral request made to Callon Petroleum Company, 200 North Canal Street, Natchez, Mississippi 39120, telephone: (601) 442-1601. To obtain timely delivery of any requested information, holders of old notes must make any request no later than five business days prior to the expiration of the exchange offer.

 

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus includes “forward-looking statements”. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “anticipate,” “project,” “intend,” “estimate,” “expect,” “believe,” “predict,” “budget,” “projection,” “goal,” “plan,” “forecast,” “target” or similar expressions intended to identify forward-looking statements.

All statements, other than statements of historical facts, included in this prospectus that address activities, events or developments that we expect or anticipate will or may occur in the future are forward-looking statements, including such things as:

 

    our oil and gas reserve quantities, and the discounted present value of these reserves;

 

    the amount and nature of our capital expenditures;

 

    our future drilling and development plans and our potential drilling locations;

 

    the timing and amount of future production and operating costs;

 

    commodity price risk management activities and the impact on our average realized prices;

 

    business strategies and plans of management;

 

    our ability to efficiently integrate recently completed acquisitions; and

 

    prospect development and property acquisitions.

Some of the risks, which could affect our future results and could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in our forward-looking statements, include:

 

    general economic conditions including the availability of credit and access to existing lines of credit;

 

    the volatility of oil and natural gas prices;

 

    the uncertainty of estimates of oil and natural gas reserves;

 

    impairments;

 

    the impact of competition;

 

    the availability and cost of seismic, drilling and other equipment;

 

    operating hazards inherent in the exploration for and production of oil and natural gas;

 

    difficulties encountered during the exploration for and production of oil and natural gas;

 

    difficulties encountered in delivering oil and natural gas to commercial markets;

 

    changes in customer demand and producers’ supply;

 

    the uncertainty of our ability to attract capital and obtain financing on favorable terms;

 

    compliance with, or the effect of changes in, the extensive governmental regulations regarding the oil and natural gas business including those related to climate change and greenhouse gases;

 

    the impact of government regulation, including regulation of endangered species;

 

    any increase in severance or similar taxes;

 

    litigation relating to hydraulic fracturing, the climate and over-the-counter derivatives;

 

    the financial impact of accounting regulations and critical accounting policies;

 

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    the comparative cost of alternative fuels;

 

    credit risk relating to the risk of loss as a result of non-performance by our counterparties;

 

    weather conditions; and

 

    any other factors included as “Risk Factors” in this prospectus or listed in the reports we have filed and may file with the SEC.

Except as otherwise required by applicable law, we disclaim any duty to update any forward-looking statements, all of which are expressly qualified by the statements in this section, to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this prospectus. The information contained in this prospectus, including the information set forth under the heading “Risk Factors,” identifies additional factors that could affect our operating results and performance. We urge you to carefully consider these factors and the other cautionary statements in this prospectus. Our forward-looking statements speak only as of the date made, and we have no obligation to update these forward-looking statements.

 

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. Because this is a summary, it may not contain all of the information that may be important to you and to your investment decision. The following summary is qualified in its entirety by the more detailed information and financial statements and notes thereto incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You should read this prospectus and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus carefully and should consider, among other things, the matters set forth in “Risk Factors” beginning on page 8 of this prospectus and the risk factors described under the heading “Risk Factors” included in Item 1A of Part I of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year, ended December 31, 2016, before deciding to exchange your old notes for new notes.

In this prospectus, unless indicated otherwise, or the context otherwise requires references to the “Company,” “Callon,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer to Callon Petroleum Company and its consolidated subsidiaries. We are a publicly traded company under the ticker symbol NYSE: CPE.

Our Business

Callon Petroleum Company has been engaged in the exploration, development, acquisition and production of oil and natural gas properties since 1950.

We are an independent oil and natural gas company focused on the acquisition and development of unconventional oil and natural gas reserves in the Permian Basin. The Permian Basin is located in West Texas and southeastern New Mexico and is comprised of three primary sub-basins: the Midland Basin, the Delaware Basin, and the Central Basin Platform. We have historically been focused on the Midland Basin and recently entered the Delaware Basin through an acquisition completed in February 2017. Our drilling activity during 2016 focused on the horizontal development of several prospective intervals in the Midland Basin, including multiple levels of the Wolfcamp formation and the Lower Spraberry shale. As a result of our horizontal development efforts and contributions from acquisitions, our net daily production for calendar year 2016 as compared to calendar year 2015 grew approximately 59% to 15,227 BOE/d (approximately 77% oil). We intend to grow our reserves and production through the development, exploitation and drilling of our multi-year inventory of identified, potential drilling locations. We intend to add to this inventory through delineation drilling of emerging zones on our existing acreage and acquisition of additional locations through leasehold purchases, leasing programs, joint ventures and asset swaps.

For the year ended December 31, 2016, our net proved reserve volumes increased 69% as compared to the year ended December 31, 2015, to 91.6 MMBOE, comprised of 78% crude oil including 71.1 MMBbls with the remaining 22% natural gas of 122.6 Bcf. Approximately 47% of our net proved year-end 2016 reserves were proved developed on a BOE basis

General Corporate Information

We are a Delaware corporation with our principal executive office located at 200 North Canal Street, Natchez, Mississippi 39120. Our telephone number at that address is (601) 442-1601. We maintain a website on the Internet at www.callon.com. The information on our website is not part of this prospectus.

 



 

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THE EXCHANGE OFFER

On October 3, 2016, we completed the private placement of $400 million aggregate principal amount of 6.125% Senior Notes due 2024. As part of that offering, we entered into a registration rights agreement with the initial purchasers of the old notes in which we agreed, among other things, to deliver this prospectus to you and to complete an exchange offer for the old notes. Below is a summary of the exchange offer.

 

Old Notes

6.125% Senior Notes due 2024

 

New Notes

Notes of the same series, the issuance of which has been registered under the Securities Act. The terms of the new notes are identical in all material respects to those of the old notes, except that the transfer restrictions, registration rights and additional interest provisions relating to the old notes do not apply to the new notes.

 

Terms of the Offer

We are offering to exchange a like amount of new notes for our old notes in denominations of $2,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof. In order to be exchanged, an old note must be properly tendered and accepted. All old notes that are validly tendered and not withdrawn before the exchange offer expires will be exchanged. As of the date of this prospectus, there is $400 million aggregate principal amount of 6.125% Senior Notes due 2024 outstanding. We will issue new notes promptly after the expiration of the exchange offer.

 

Expiration Time

The exchange offer will expire at 5:00 p.m., New York City time, on             , 2017, unless extended.

 

Procedures for Tendering

All of the old notes are held in book-entry form through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company, or DTC. To participate in the exchange offer, you must follow the automatic tender offer program, or ATOP, procedures established by DTC for tendering notes held in book-entry form. The ATOP procedures require that the exchange agent receive, prior to the expiration time of the exchange offer, a computer-generated message known as an “agent’s message” that is transmitted through ATOP and that DTC confirm that:

 

    DTC has received instructions to exchange your notes; and

 

    you agree to be bound by the terms of the letter of transmittal in Annex A hereto.

 

  For more details, please read “The Exchange Offer—Terms of the Exchange Offer” and “The Exchange Offer—Procedures for Tendering.”

 

  Letters of transmittal should not be sent to us. Such letters should only be sent to the exchange agent. Questions regarding how to tender old notes and requests for information should be directed to the exchange agent. See “The Exchange Offer—Exchange Agent.”

 

Guaranteed Delivery Procedures

None.

 



 

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Acceptance of Old Notes for Exchange;

 

Delivery of New Notes

Subject to the conditions stated in “The Exchange Offer—Conditions to the Exchange Offer,” we will accept for exchange any and all old notes which are properly tendered in the exchange offer before the expiration time. The new notes will be delivered promptly after the expiration time.

 

Interest Payments on the New Notes

The new notes will bear interest from the date of original issuance of the old notes or, if interest has already been paid on the old notes, from the date interest was most recently paid. If your old notes are accepted for exchange, then you will receive interest on the new notes (including any accrued but unpaid additional interest on the old notes) and not on the old notes.

 

Withdrawal Rights

You may withdraw your tender of old notes at any time before the expiration time. To withdraw, you must submit a notice of withdrawal to the exchange agent using ATOP procedures before 5:00 p.m., New York City time, on the expiration date of the exchange offer. Please read “The Exchange Offer—Withdrawal of Tenders.”

 

Conditions to the Exchange Offer

The registration rights agreement does not require us to accept old notes for exchange if the exchange offer or the making of any exchange by a holder of the old notes would violate any applicable law or SEC policy. A minimum aggregate principal amount of old notes being tendered is not a condition to the exchange offer. Please read “The Exchange Offer—Conditions to the Exchange Offer” for more information about the conditions to the exchange offer

 

Resales of New Notes

Based on interpretations by the staff of the SEC in no-action letters issued to third parties, we believe that you may transfer new notes issued under the exchange offer in exchange for the old notes if:

 

    you acquire the new notes in the ordinary course of your business; and

 

    you are not engaged in, and do not intend to engage in, and have no arrangement or understanding with any person to participate in, a distribution of such new notes.

 

  You may not participate in the exchange offer if you are:

 

    an “affiliate” within the meaning of Rule 405 under the Securities Act of the Company; or

 

    a broker-dealer that acquired old notes directly from us.

 

  If you fail to satisfy any of the foregoing conditions, you will not be permitted to tender your old notes in the exchange offer and you must comply with the registration and prospectus delivery requirements of the Securities Act in connection with any sale or other transfer of your old notes unless such sale is made pursuant to an exemption from such requirements.

 



 

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  Each broker or dealer that receives new notes for its own account in exchange for old notes that were acquired as a result of market-making or other trading activities must acknowledge that it will comply with the registration and prospectus delivery requirements of the Securities Act in connection with any offer to resell, resale or other transfer of the new notes issued in the exchange offer, including the delivery of a prospectus that contains information with respect to any selling holder required by the Securities Act in connection with any resale of the new notes. See “The Exchange Offer—Resales of New Notes.”

 

Exchange Agent

U.S. Bank National Association is serving as the exchange agent in connection with the exchange offer. The address and telephone and facsimile numbers of the exchange agent are listed under the heading “The Exchange Offer—Exchange Agent.”

 

Use of Proceeds

We will not receive any proceeds from the issuance of new notes in the exchange offer. We will pay all expenses incident to the exchange offer. See “Use of Proceeds” and “The Exchange Offer—Fees and Expenses.”

 



 

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THE NEW NOTES

The following summary contains basic information about the new notes and is not intended to be complete. For a more complete understanding of the new notes, please refer to the section entitled “Description of New Notes” in this prospectus. The term “notes” below includes both the new notes and the old notes.

 

Issuer

Callon Petroleum Company

 

Notes Offered

$400,000,000 aggregate principal amount of 6.125% senior notes due October 1, 2024.

 

Issue Price

100.000% of principal plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any from October 3, 2016 of old notes.

 

Maturity

October 1, 2024.

 

Interest

6.125% per year (calculated using a 360-day year).

 

Interest Payment Dates

April 1 and October 1 of each year, beginning April 1, 2017.

 

Ranking

The notes will be the issuer’s general unsecured, senior obligations. Accordingly, they will rank:

 

    equal in right of payment to all of the issuer’s existing and future senior indebtedness;

 

    effectively junior in right of payment to all of the issuer’s existing and future secured indebtedness to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness;

 

    structurally subordinate in right of payment to all indebtedness and other liabilities, including trade payables, of any existing and future subsidiaries that do not guarantee the notes; and

 

    senior in right of payment to all of the issuer’s existing and future subordinated indebtedness.

 

  At December 31, 2016:

 

    we had $400 million of old notes outstanding;

 

    we and Callon Petroleum Operating Company (the “Guarantor”) had $0 million of secured indebtedness outstanding with elected commitments available for borrowing of under the borrowing base of $385 million under the senior secured revolving credit agreement, to which the notes rank junior to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such obligations, and $400 million of unsecured debt outstanding (including the old notes); and

 

    our subsidiaries that will not be Guarantors had obligations (including trade payables but excluding intercompany obligations) outstanding of approximately $0 million, to which the notes rank structurally junior.

 

Subsidiary Guarantee

The notes initially will be guaranteed by our wholly-owned subsidiary Callon Petroleum Operating Company, and may be guaranteed by certain future subsidiaries. In the future, the guarantees may be released or terminated under certain circumstances. See “Description

 



 

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of New Notes—Brief Description of the Notes and the Note Guarantees” and “Description of New Notes—Certain Covenants—Additional Note Guarantees.”

 

  Each subsidiary guarantee will rank:

 

    equal in right of payment to all existing and future senior indebtedness of the guarantor subsidiary;

 

    effectively subordinate in right of payment to all existing and future secured indebtedness of the guarantor subsidiary, including its indebtedness under our senior secured revolving credit facility, to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness;

 

    structurally subordinate in right of payment to all existing and future debt and other liabilities (including trade payables) of any subsidiaries of the guarantor subsidiaries that are not guarantors of the notes; and

 

    senior in right of payment to any existing and future subordinated indebtedness of the guarantor subsidiary.

 

Optional Redemption

At any time prior to October 1, 2019, we may, from time to time, redeem up to 35% of the aggregate principal amount of the notes in an amount of cash not greater than the net cash proceeds of certain equity offerings at the redemption price set forth under “Description of New Notes—Optional Redemption,” plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to the date of redemption, if at least 65% of the aggregate principal amount of the notes issued under the indenture remains outstanding immediately after such redemption and the redemption occurs within 180 days of the closing date of such equity offering.

 

  At any time prior to October 1, 2019, we may, on any one or more occasions, redeem all or a part of the notes at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the notes redeemed, plus the “make whole” premium set forth in this prospectus, and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to the date of redemption. See “Description of New Notes—Optional Redemption.”

 

  On and after October 1, 2019, we may redeem the notes, in whole or in part, at the redemption prices set forth under “Description of New Notes—Optional Redemption,” plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to the date of redemption.

 

Change of Control

If we experience certain kinds of change of control, each holder of the notes may require us to repurchase all or a portion of its notes for cash at a price equal to 101% of the aggregate principal amount of such notes, plus any accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to the date of repurchase. See “Description of New Notes—Repurchase at the Option of the Holders—Change of Control.”

 



 

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Certain Covenants

The indenture governing the notes will contain covenants that, among other things, limit our ability and the ability of our restricted subsidiaries to:

 

    incur or guarantee additional indebtedness or issue certain types of preferred stock;

 

    pay dividends on capital stock or redeem, repurchase or retire our capital stock or subordinated indebtedness;

 

    transfer or sell assets;

 

    make investments;

 

    create certain liens;

 

    enter into agreements that restrict dividends or other payments from our restricted subsidiaries to us;

 

    consolidate, merge or transfer all or substantially all of our assets;

 

    engage in transactions with affiliates; and

 

    create unrestricted subsidiaries.

 

  The covenants set forth in the indenture are subject to important exceptions and qualifications that are described under “Description of New Notes—Certain Covenants.” If the notes achieve an investment grade rating from either Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (“Moody’s”) or Standard & Poor’s Ratings Services (“Standard & Poor’s”), many of these covenants will be suspended.

 

Transfer Restrictions

The new notes are registered under the Securities Act and have no restrictions on transfer.

 

Trustee

U.S. Bank National Association.

 

Governing Law

The notes and the indenture will be governed by New York law.

 

Absence of Established Market for the New Notes

The new notes are a new issue of securities and will not be listed on any securities exchange or included in any automated quotation system, and there is currently no established market for the new notes. The initial purchasers have advised us that they intend to make a market in the new notes. The initial purchasers are not obligated, however, to make a market in the new notes, and any such market may be discontinued by the initial purchasers in their discretion at any time without notice. See “Plan of Distribution.”

 

Use of Proceeds

We will receive no cash proceeds for the new notes.

 

Risk Factors

You should consider carefully the information set forth in the section entitled “Risk Factors” beginning on page 7 and all other information contained in this prospectus before deciding to invest in the new notes.

 



 

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RISK FACTORS

Each of the risks described below should be carefully considered, together with the risk factors incorporated by reference herein from our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and, to the extent applicable, any subsequently filed Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or Current Reports on Form 8-K and all of the information contained in this prospectus, before making an investment decision with respect to participating in the exchange offer of old notes for new notes. If any of the following risks develop into actual events, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially and adversely affected, and you may lose all or part of your investment. The new notes and the old notes are collectively referred to in this prospectus as the “notes.”

Risks Related to the Exchange Offer

You may have difficulty selling the old notes you do not exchange.

If you do not exchange your old notes for new notes in the exchange offer, you will continue to be subject to the restrictions on transfer of your old notes as described in the legend on the global notes representing the old notes. There are restrictions on transfer of your old notes because we issued the old notes under an exemption from, or in a transaction not subject to, the registration requirements of the Securities Act and applicable state securities laws. In general, you may only offer or sell the old notes if they are registered under the Securities Act and applicable state securities laws or offered and sold under an exemption from, or in a transaction not subject to, these requirements. We do not intend to register any old notes not tendered in the exchange offer and, upon consummation of the exchange offer, you will not be entitled to any rights to have your untendered old notes registered under the Securities Act.

Broker-dealers may need to comply with the registration and prospectus delivery requirements of the Securities Act.

Any broker-dealer that (1) exchanges its old notes in the exchange offer for the purpose of participating in a distribution of the new notes or (2) resells new notes that were received by it for its own account in the exchange offer may be deemed to have received restricted securities and will be required to comply with the registration and prospectus delivery requirements of the Securities Act in connection with any resale transaction by that broker- dealer. Any profit on the resale of the new notes and any commission or concessions received by a broker-dealer may be deemed to be underwriting compensation under the Securities Act.

You may not receive new notes in the Exchange Offer if the Exchange Offer procedure is not followed.

We will issue the new notes in exchange for your old notes only if you tender the old notes before expiration of the exchange offer in the manner required herein. Neither the exchange agent nor we are under any duty to give notification of defects or irregularities with respect to the tenders of old notes for exchange. If you are the beneficial holder of old notes that are registered in the name of your broker, dealer, commercial bank, trust company or other nominee, and you wish to tender old notes in the exchange offer, you should promptly contact the person in whose name your old notes are registered and instruct that person to tender your old notes on your behalf.

Risks Related to the New Notes

We may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service all of our indebtedness and may be forced to take other actions to satisfy our obligations under applicable debt instruments, which may not be successful.

Our ability to make scheduled payments on or to refinance our indebtedness obligations, including our senior secured revolving credit facility and the notes offered hereby, depends on our financial condition and operating performance, which are subject to prevailing economic and competitive conditions and certain financial, business and other factors beyond our control. We may not be able to maintain a level of cash flows from operating activities sufficient to permit us to pay the principal, premium, if any, and interest on our indebtedness.

 

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If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund debt service obligations, we may be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures, sell assets, seek additional capital or restructure or refinance indebtedness. Our ability to restructure or refinance indebtedness will depend on the condition of the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. Any refinancing of indebtedness could be at higher interest rates and may require us to comply with more onerous covenants, which could further restrict business operations. The terms of existing or future debt instruments may restrict us from adopting some of these alternatives. In addition, any failure to make payments of interest and principal on outstanding indebtedness on a timely basis would likely result in a reduction of our credit rating, which could harm our ability to incur additional indebtedness. In the absence of sufficient cash flows and capital resources, we could face substantial liquidity problems and might be required to dispose of material assets or operations to meet debt service and other obligations. Our senior secured revolving credit facility currently restricts our ability to dispose of assets and our use of the proceeds from such disposition. We may not be able to consummate those dispositions, and the proceeds of any such disposition may not be adequate to meet any debt service obligations then due. These alternative measures may not be successful and may not permit us to meet scheduled debt service obligations.

The borrowing base under our senior secured revolving credit facility is currently $500 million, with elected commitments of $385 million. Our next scheduled borrowing base redetermination is expected to occur on or before May 2017. In the future, we may not be able to access adequate funding under our senior secured revolving credit facility as a result of a decrease in borrowing base due to the issuance of new indebtedness, the outcome of a subsequent borrowing base redetermination or an unwillingness or inability on the part of lending counterparties to meet their funding obligations and the inability of other lenders to provide additional funding to cover the defaulting lender’s portion. Declines in commodity prices could result in a determination to lower the borrowing base in the future and, in such a case, we could be required to repay any indebtedness in excess of the redetermined borrowing base. As a result, we may be unable to implement our drilling and development plan, make acquisitions or otherwise carry out business plans, which would have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations and impair our ability to service our indebtedness.

Our leverage and debt service obligations may adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, business prospects and our ability to make payments on the notes.

As of December 31, 2016, we had $400 million of notes outstanding, we and the Guarantor had $0 million of secured indebtedness outstanding and elected commitments available for borrowing under the borrowing base of $385 million under the senior secured revolving credit agreement, to which the notes rank junior to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such obligations, and $400 million of unsecured debt outstanding (including the notes); and our subsidiaries that will not be Guarantors had obligations (including trade payables but excluding intercompany obligations) outstanding of approximately $0 million, to which the notes rank structurally junior.

Our level of indebtedness could affect our operations in several ways, including the following:

 

    require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to service our existing debt, thereby reducing the cash available to finance our operations and other business activities;

 

    limit management’s discretion in operating our business and our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate;

 

    increase our vulnerability to downturns and adverse developments in our business and the economy generally;

 

    limit our ability to access the capital markets to raise capital on favorable terms or to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures or acquisitions or to refinance existing indebtedness;

 

    place restrictions on our ability to obtain additional financing, make investments, lease equipment, sell assets and engage in business combinations;

 

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    make it more likely that a reduction in our borrowing base following a periodic redetermination could require us to repay a portion of our then-outstanding bank borrowings;

 

    make us vulnerable to increases in interest rates as our indebtedness under our senior secured revolving credit facility may vary with prevailing interest rates;

 

    place us at a competitive disadvantage relative to competitors with lower levels of indebtedness in relation to their overall size or less restrictive terms governing their indebtedness; and

 

    make it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations under the notes or other debt and increase the risk that we may default on our debt obligations.

The notes and the guarantees will be unsecured obligations and will be effectively subordinated to all of our existing and future secured indebtedness to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness and structurally subordinated to liabilities of any non-guarantor subsidiaries.

The notes and the guarantees will be general unsecured senior obligations ranking effectively junior to all of our existing and future secured indebtedness (including all borrowings under our senior secured revolving credit facility) to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness. As of December 31, 2016, we had $400 million of notes outstanding, we and the Guarantor had $0 million of secured Indebtedness outstanding with elected commitments available for borrowing under the borrowing base of $385 million, under the senior secured revolving credit facility, to which the notes rank junior to the extent the value of the collateral securing such obligations. Under our senior secured revolving credit facility, we have granted a first-priority lien on the material portion of our and our subsidiaries’ properties now owned, or acquired in the future, including substantially all of their real and personal property and at least 80% of the PV9 of their oil and gas properties classified as proven reserves. If we or a guarantor is declared bankrupt, becomes insolvent or is liquidated or reorganized, the holders of our secured indebtedness or the secured indebtedness of such guarantor will be entitled to be paid in full from the proceeds of the assets, if any, securing such indebtedness before any payment may be made with respect to the notes or the affected guarantees. Holders of the notes will participate ratably in any remaining proceeds with all holders of our unsecured indebtedness, including unsecured indebtedness incurred after the notes are issued that does not rank junior to the notes, including trade payables and all of our other general indebtedness, based on the respective amounts owed to each holder or creditor. In any of the foregoing events, there may not be sufficient funds to pay amounts due on the notes. As a result, holders of the notes would likely receive less, ratably, than holders of secured indebtedness.

The notes will also be structurally subordinated to any indebtedness and other liabilities of any of our future subsidiaries that do not guarantee the notes. The indenture governing the notes will permit us to form or acquire additional subsidiaries that are not guarantors of the notes in certain circumstances.

We and our subsidiaries may incur substantial additional indebtedness. This could increase the risks associated with the notes.

Subject to the restrictions in the indenture governing the notes and in other instruments governing our other outstanding indebtedness (including our senior secured revolving credit facility), we and our subsidiary guarantors may incur substantial additional indebtedness (including secured indebtedness) in the future. Although the indenture governing the notes will contain, and our senior secured revolving credit facility contains, restrictions on the incurrence of additional indebtedness, these restrictions are subject to waiver and a number of significant qualifications and exceptions, and indebtedness incurred in compliance with these restrictions could be substantial. If we or a guarantor incurs any additional indebtedness that ranks equally with the notes (or with the guarantees thereof), including additional unsecured indebtedness or trade payables, the holders of that indebtedness will be entitled to share ratably with holders of the notes in any proceeds distributed in connection with any insolvency, liquidation, reorganization, dissolution or other winding-up of us or a guarantor. This may have the effect of reducing the amount of proceeds paid to holders of the notes in connection with such a distribution.

 

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Any increase in our level of indebtedness will have several important effects on our future operations, including, without limitation, whether:

 

    we will have additional cash requirements in order to support the payment of interest on our outstanding indebtedness;

 

    increases in our outstanding indebtedness and leverage will increase our vulnerability to adverse changes in general economic and industry conditions, as well as to competitive pressure; and

 

    depending on the levels of our outstanding indebtedness, our ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures, general corporate and other purposes may be limited.

We cannot assure you that we will be able to maintain or improve our leverage position.

An element of our business strategy involves maintaining a disciplined approach to financial management. However, we are also seeking to acquire, exploit and develop additional reserves that may require the incurrence of additional indebtedness. Although we will seek to maintain or improve our leverage position, our ability to maintain or reduce our level of indebtedness depends on a variety of factors, including future performance and our future debt financing needs. General economic conditions, oil, NGL and natural gas prices and financial, business and other factors will also affect our ability to maintain or improve our leverage position. Many of these factors are beyond our control.

Our senior secured revolving credit facility has, and the indenture governing the notes will have, restrictive covenants that could limit our growth, financial flexibility and our ability to engage in certain activities.

Our senior secured revolving credit facility has, and the indenture governing the notes will have, restrictive covenants that could limit our growth, financial flexibility and our ability to engage in activities that may be in our long-term best interests. Our senior secured revolving credit facility contains covenants, and the indenture governing the notes will contain covenants, that, among other things, limit our ability to:

 

    incur additional indebtedness;

 

    make loans to others;

 

    make investments;

 

    merge or consolidate with another entity;

 

    make dividends and certain other payments;

 

    hedge future production or interest rates;

 

    create liens that secure indebtedness;

 

    sell assets;

 

    enter into transactions with affiliates; and

 

    engage in certain other transactions without the prior consent of the lenders.

In addition, our senior secured revolving credit facility requires us to maintain certain financial ratios or to reduce our indebtedness if we are unable to comply with such ratios, which may limit our ability to obtain future financings to withstand a future downturn in our business or the economy in general, or to otherwise conduct necessary corporate activities. We may also be prevented from taking advantage of business opportunities that arise because of these limitations. See “Description of New Notes—Certain Covenants.”

Our failure to comply with these covenants could result in an event of default that, if not cured or waived, could result in the acceleration of all of our indebtedness. If that occurs, we may not be able to make all of the required payments or borrow sufficient funds to refinance such indebtedness. Even if new financing were available at that time, it may not be on terms that are acceptable to us.

 

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The borrowing base under our senior secured revolving credit facility is subject to periodic redetermination.

The borrowing base under our senior secured revolving credit facility is redetermined at least semi-annually. Under the senior secured revolving credit facility, we may elect to cause interim redeterminations under certain circumstances. In addition, we and the administrative agent may each request two additional redeterminations per year. Redeterminations are based upon a number of factors, including commodity prices and reserve levels. In addition, our lenders have substantial flexibility to reduce our borrowing base due to subjective factors. Our borrowing base is currently $500 million, with elected commitments available for borrowing of $385 million, and we expect that it will remain at $500 million until the next scheduled redetermination on or before May 2017. We could be required to repay a portion of our bank debt to the extent that after a redetermination our outstanding borrowings at such time exceed the redetermined borrowing base. We may not have sufficient funds to make such repayments, which could result in a default under the terms of the facility and an acceleration of the loans thereunder requiring us to negotiate renewals, arrange new financing or sell significant assets, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results.

If we are unable to comply with the restrictions and covenants in the agreements governing the notes and our other indebtedness, there could be a default under the terms of these agreements, which could result in an acceleration of payment of funds that we have borrowed and would affect our ability to make principal and interest payments on the notes.

Any default under the agreements governing our indebtedness that is not cured or waived by the required lenders, and the remedies sought by the holders of any such indebtedness, could make us unable to pay principal, premium, if any, and interest, or special interest, if any, on the notes and substantially decrease the market value of the notes. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flow and are otherwise unable to obtain funds necessary to meet required payments of principal, premium, if any, and interest, or special interest, if any, on our indebtedness, or if we otherwise fail to comply with the various covenants, including financial and operating covenants, in the agreements governing our indebtedness (including covenants in our senior secured revolving credit facility and the indenture governing the notes), we could be in default under the terms of the agreements governing such indebtedness. In the event of such default:

 

    the holders of such indebtedness could elect to declare all the funds borrowed thereunder to be due and payable, together with accrued and unpaid interest;

 

    the lenders under our senior secured revolving credit facility could elect to terminate their commitments thereunder, cease making further loans and institute foreclosure proceedings against our assets; and

 

    we could be forced into bankruptcy or liquidation.

If our operating performance declines, we may in the future need to obtain waivers under our senior secured revolving credit facility to avoid being in default. If we breach our covenants under our senior secured revolving credit facility and seek a waiver, we may not be able to obtain a waiver from the required lenders. If this occurs, we would be in default under our senior secured revolving credit facility, the lenders could exercise their rights, as described above, and we could be forced into bankruptcy or liquidation.

We may not be able to repurchase the notes upon a change of control.

If we experience certain kinds of changes of control, we may be required to offer to repurchase all outstanding notes at 101% of their principal amount, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any. We may not be able to repurchase the notes upon a change of control because we may not have sufficient financial resources to purchase all of the notes that are tendered following a change of control. In addition, the terms of our senior secured revolving credit facility would effectively prohibit, and the terms of other future indebtedness may also prohibit, us from repurchasing notes upon a change of control. Our failure to repurchase the notes upon a change of control could cause a default under the indenture governing the notes and could lead to a cross default under our senior secured revolving credit facility. Additionally, using cash to fund the potential consequences of a change

 

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of control may impair our ability to obtain additional financing in the future, which could negatively impact our ability to conduct our business operations. See ‘‘Description of New Notes—Repurchase at the Option of Holders—Change of Control.’’

Federal and state statutes allow courts, under specific circumstances, to void guarantees and require noteholders to return payments received from guarantors.

Federal bankruptcy and state fraudulent transfer laws permit a court to void all or a portion of the obligations of a guarantor pursuant to its guarantee of the notes, or to subordinate any guarantor’s obligations under such guarantee to claims of its other creditors, reducing or eliminating the noteholders’ ability to recover under such guarantee. Although laws differ among these jurisdictions, in general, under applicable fraudulent transfer or conveyance laws, a guarantee could be voided as a fraudulent transfer or conveyance if (i) the guarantee was incurred with the intent of hindering, delaying or defrauding creditors or (ii) the guarantor received less than reasonably equivalent value or fair consideration in return for incurring the guarantee and either:

 

    the guarantor was insolvent or rendered insolvent by reason of the incurrence of the guarantee or subsequently became insolvent for other reasons;

 

    the incurrence of the guarantee left the guarantor with an unreasonably small amount of capital to carry on the business; or

 

    the guarantor intended to, or believed that it would, incur debts beyond its ability to pay such debts as they mature.

A court would likely find that a guarantor did not receive reasonably equivalent value or fair consideration for its guarantee if the guarantor did not substantially benefit directly or indirectly from the issuance of the notes. If a court were to void a guarantee, you would no longer have a claim against the guarantor. Sufficient funds to repay the notes may not be available from other sources, including the remaining guarantors, if any. In addition, the court might direct you to repay any amounts that you already received from the guarantor. The measures of insolvency for purposes of fraudulent transfer laws vary depending upon the governing law of the applicable jurisdiction. Generally, a guarantor would be considered insolvent if:

 

    the sum of its debts, including contingent liabilities, was greater than the fair saleable value of all its assets;

 

    the present fair saleable value of its assets was less than the amount that would be required to pay its probable liability on its existing debts, including contingent liabilities, as they became absolute and mature; or

 

    it could not pay its debts as they became due.

Each guarantee will contain a provision intended to limit the guarantor’s liability under the guarantee to the maximum amount that the guarantor could incur without causing the incurrence of obligations under its guarantee to be deemed a fraudulent transfer. This provision may not be effective to protect the guarantees from being voided under fraudulent transfer law.

An active trading market for the notes does not exist and may not develop.

There is no existing market for the notes. The notes will not be listed on any securities exchange. There can be no assurance that a trading market for the notes will ever develop or will be maintained. Further, there can be no assurance as to the liquidity of any market that may develop for the notes, your ability to sell your notes or the price at which you will be able to sell your notes. The initial purchasers have advised us that they intend to make a market in the notes, but there is no obligation for them to do so. Future trading prices of the notes will depend on many factors, including prevailing interest rates, our financial condition and results of operations, the then current ratings assigned to the notes and the market for similar securities. Any trading market that develops would be affected by many factors independent of and in addition to the foregoing, including:

 

    the time remaining to the maturity of the notes;

 

    the outstanding amount of the notes;

 

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    the number of noteholders;

 

    the interest of securities dealers in making a market for the notes;

 

    our operating performance and financial condition;

 

    the terms related to optional redemption of the notes; and

 

    the level, direction and volatility of market interest rates generally.

If an active market does not develop or is not maintained, the market price and liquidity of the notes may be adversely affected.

Many of the covenants contained in the indenture will be suspended if the notes are rated investment grade by Moody’s or Standard & Poor’s and no default has occurred and is continuing.

Many of the covenants in the indenture governing the notes will be suspended if the notes are rated investment grade by Moody’s or Standard & Poor’s, provided at such time no default or event of default has occurred and is continuing. These covenants include restrictions on our ability to pay dividends, to incur debt and to enter into certain transactions. There can be no assurance that the notes will ever be rated investment grade. However, suspension of these covenants would allow us to engage in certain transactions that would not have been permitted while these covenants were in force. See ‘‘Description of New Notes—Certain Covenants—Changes in Covenants if Notes Rated Investment Grade.’’

We face risks related to rating agency downgrades.

We expect one or more rating agencies to rate the notes. If such rating agencies either assign the notes a rating lower than the rating expected by the investors, or reduce the rating in the future, the market price of the notes may be adversely affected, raising capital may become more difficult and borrowing costs under our senior secured revolving credit facility and other future borrowings may increase.

 

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RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

The ratio of our earnings to fixed charges for the periods indicated are as follows:

 

     Years ended December 31,  
     2016     2015     2014      2013      2012  

Ratio of earnings to fixed charges(a)

     (b     (c     5.02        1.36        1.39  

Ratio of earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends

     (b     (c     2.64        0.77        1.39  

 

(a) The ratio of earnings to fixed charges has been computed by dividing earnings available for fixed charges (earnings before income taxes plus fixed charges) by fixed charges (interest expense plus capitalized interest).
(b) For the year ended December 31, 2016, we recorded a $95.8 million ceiling test write-down of oil and gas properties. As a result, earnings in 2016 were insufficient by $111.7 million to cover fixed charges, and by $119.0 million to cover fixed charges plus preferred stock dividends.
(c) For the year ended December 31, 2015, we recorded a $208.4 million ceiling test write-down of oil and gas properties. As a result, earnings in 2015 were insufficient by $212.1 million to cover fixed charges, and by $221.9 million to cover fixed charges plus preferred stock dividends.

 

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THE EXCHANGE OFFER

We sold the old notes on October 3, 2016 pursuant to the purchase agreement, dated as of October 3, 2016, by and among us, our subsidiary guarantors and the initial purchasers named therein. The old notes were subsequently offered by the initial purchasers to qualified institutional buyers pursuant to Rule 144A under the Securities Act and to non-U.S. persons pursuant to Regulation S under the Securities Act.

Purpose of the Exchange Offer

We sold old notes in transactions that were exempt from or not subject to registration requirements under the Securities Act. Accordingly, the old notes are subject to transfer restrictions. In general, you may not offer or sell the old notes unless either they are no longer subject to certain restrictions on transfer or the offer or sale is exempt from or not subject to registration under the Securities Act and applicable state securities laws.

In connection with the sale of the old notes, we entered into a registration rights agreement with the initial purchasers of the old notes. We are making the exchange offer to fulfill our contractual obligations under that agreement. A copy of the registration rights agreement has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. The exchange offer will be open for at least 20 business days.

Pursuant to the exchange offer, we will issue the new notes in exchange for old notes. The terms of the new notes are identical in all material respects to those of the old notes, except that the new notes (1) will not be subject to certain restrictions on transfer applicable to the old notes and (2) will not have registration rights or provide for any increase in the interest rate related to the obligation to register. See “Description of the New Notes” for more information on the terms of the new notes.

We are not making the exchange offer to, and will not accept tenders for exchange from, holders of old notes in any jurisdiction in which an exchange offer or the acceptance thereof would not be in compliance with the securities or blue sky laws of such jurisdiction. Unless the context requires otherwise, the term “holder” means any person whose old notes are held of record by The Depository Trust Company, or DTC, who desires to deliver such old notes by book-entry transfer at DTC.

We make no recommendation to the holders of old notes as to whether to tender or refrain from tendering all or any portion of their old notes pursuant to the exchange offer. In addition, no one has been authorized to make any such recommendation. Holders of old notes must make their own decision whether to tender pursuant to the exchange offer and, if so, the aggregate amount of old notes to tender after reading this prospectus and the letter of transmittal and consulting with their advisers, if any, based on their own financial position and requirements.

Each broker-dealer that receives new notes for its own account in exchange for old notes, where such securities were acquired by such broker-dealer as a result of market making activities or other trading activities, must acknowledge that it will deliver a prospectus that meets the requirements of the Securities Act in connection with any resale of the new notes. See “Plan of Distribution.”

Resales of New Notes

Based on interpretations by the staff of the SEC, as described in no-action letters issued to third parties, we believe that new notes issued in the exchange offer in exchange for old notes may be offered for resale, resold or otherwise transferred by holders of the old notes without compliance with the registration and prospectus delivery provisions of the Securities Act, if:

 

    the new notes are acquired in the ordinary course of the holders’ business;

 

    the holders have no arrangement or understanding with any person to participate in the distribution of the new notes; and

 

    the holders are not “affiliates” of the Company within the meaning of Rule 405 under the Securities Act.

 

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However, the SEC has not considered the exchange offer described in this prospectus in the context of a no-action letter. We cannot assure you that the staff of the SEC would make a similar determination with respect to the exchange offer as in the other circumstances. Each holder who wishes to exchange old notes for new notes will be required to represent that it meets the above three requirements.

Any holder who is an affiliate of ours or who intends to participate in the exchange offer for the purpose of distributing new notes or any broker-dealer who purchased old notes directly from us to resell pursuant to Rule 144A or any other available exemption under the Securities Act:

 

    may not rely on the applicable interpretations of the staff of the SEC mentioned above;

 

    will not be permitted or entitled to tender the old notes in the exchange offer; and

 

    must comply with the registration and prospectus delivery requirements of the Securities Act in connection with any resale transaction.

Unless an exemption from registration is otherwise available, any securityholder intending to distribute new notes should be covered by an effective registration statement under the Securities Act. The registration statement should contain the selling securityholder’s information required by Item 507 or 508, as applicable, of Regulation S-K under the Securities Act.

In addition, to comply with state securities laws, the new notes may not be offered or sold in any state unless they have been registered or qualified for sale in such state or an exemption from registration or qualification, with which there has been compliance, is available. The offer and sale of the new notes to “qualified institutional buyers,” as defined under Rule 144A of the Securities Act, is generally exempt from registration or qualification under the state securities laws. We currently do not intend to register or qualify the sale of new notes in any state where an exemption from registration or qualification is required and not available.

Terms of the Exchange Offer

Upon the terms and conditions described in this prospectus and in the accompanying letter of transmittal, which together constitute the exchange offer, we will accept for exchange old notes which are properly tendered at or before the expiration time and not withdrawn as permitted below. Old notes tendered in the exchange offer must be in denominations of principal amount of $2,000 and any integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof.

The exchange offer is not conditioned upon any minimum aggregate principal amount of old notes being tendered in the exchange offer.

As of the date of this prospectus, $400,000,000 in aggregate principal amount of old notes are outstanding. This prospectus is being sent to DTC, the sole registered holder of the old notes. There will be no fixed record date for determining registered holders of old notes entitled to participate in the exchange offer.

We intend to conduct the exchange offer in accordance with the provisions of the registration rights agreement, the applicable requirements of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, and the rules and regulations of the SEC. Old notes whose holders do not tender for exchange in the exchange offer will remain outstanding and continue to accrue interest. These old notes will be entitled to the rights and benefits such holders have under the indenture relating to the old notes and, if applicable, the registration rights agreement.

We will be deemed to have accepted for exchange properly tendered old notes when we have given written notice of the acceptance to the exchange agent and complied with the applicable provisions of the registration rights agreement. The exchange agent will act as agent for the tendering holders for the purposes of receiving the new notes from us.

 

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If you tender old notes in the exchange offer, you will not be required to pay brokerage commissions or fees or, subject to the letter of transmittal, transfer taxes with respect to the exchange of old notes. We will pay all charges and expenses of the Company, other than certain applicable taxes described below, in connection with the exchange offer. Please read “—Fees and Expenses” for more details regarding fees and expenses incurred in connection with the exchange offer.

We will return any old notes that we do not accept for exchange for any reason without expense to their tendering holders promptly after the expiration or termination of the exchange offer.

Expiration, Extension and Amendment

The expiration time of the exchange offer is 5:00 p.m., New York City time, on                     , 2017. However, we may, in our sole discretion, at any time or various times, extend the period of time for which the exchange offer is open and set a later expiration date. The term “expiration time” as used herein means the latest time and date to which we extend the exchange offer. If we decide to extend the exchange offer period, we will then delay acceptance of any old notes by giving written notice of an extension to the holders of old notes as described below. During any extension period, all old notes previously tendered will remain subject to the exchange offer and may be accepted for exchange by us. Any old notes not accepted for exchange will be returned to the tendering holder after the expiration or termination of the exchange offer.

Our obligation to accept old notes for exchange in the exchange offer is subject to the conditions described below under “—Conditions to the Exchange Offer.” We may decide to waive any of the conditions in our discretion. Furthermore, we reserve the right to amend or terminate the exchange offer, and to not accept for exchange any old notes not previously accepted for exchange, if the conditions of the exchange offer specified below under the same headings are not fulfilled. We will give written notice of any extension, amendment, non-acceptance or termination to the holders of the old notes as promptly as practicable. If we amend the exchange offer in a manner that we determine to constitute a material change, we will promptly disclose such amendment by means of a prospectus supplement. The prospectus supplement will be distributed to holders of the old notes. If the change is made less than five business days before the expiration of the exchange offer, we will extend the offer so that the holders have at least five business days to tender or withdraw. In the event of any increase or decrease in the consideration we are offering for the old notes or in the percentage of old notes being sought by us, we will extend the exchange offer to remain open for at least 10 business days after the date we provide notice of such increase or decrease to the registered holders of old notes. We will notify you of any extension by means of a press release or other public announcement no later than 9:00 a.m., New York City time on the first business day after the previously scheduled expiration time.

Procedures for Tendering

To participate in the exchange offer, you must properly tender your old notes to the exchange agent as described below. We will only issue new notes in exchange for old notes that you timely and properly tender. You should follow carefully the instructions on how to tender your old notes. It is your responsibility to properly tender your old notes. We have the right to waive any defects. However, we are not required to waive defects, and neither we nor the exchange agent is required to notify you of any defects in your tender.

If you have any questions or need help in exchanging your old notes, please call the exchange agent whose address and phone number are described in the letter of transmittal included as Annex A to this prospectus.

All of the old notes were issued in book-entry form, and all of the old notes are currently represented by global certificates registered in the name of Cede & Co., the nominee of DTC. We have confirmed with DTC that the old notes may be tendered using ATOP. The exchange agent will establish an account with DTC for purposes of the exchange offer promptly after the commencement of the exchange offer, and DTC participants may electronically transmit their acceptance of the exchange offer by causing DTC to transfer their old notes to the

 

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exchange agent using the ATOP procedures. In connection with the transfer, DTC will send an “agent’s message” to the exchange agent. The agent’s message will state that DTC has received instructions from the participant to tender old notes and that the participant agrees to be bound by the terms of the letter of transmittal.

By using the ATOP procedures to exchange old notes, you will not be required to deliver a letter of transmittal to the exchange agent. However, you will be bound by its terms just as if you had signed it.

There is no procedure for guaranteed late delivery of the old notes.

If you beneficially own old notes that are registered in the name of a broker, dealer, commercial bank, trust company or other nominee and you wish to tender those notes, you should contact the registered holder as soon as possible and instruct the registered holder to tender on your behalf.

Determinations Under the Exchange Offer. We will determine in our sole discretion all questions as to the validity, form, eligibility, time of receipt, acceptance of tendered old notes and withdrawal of tendered old notes. Our determination will be final and binding. We reserve the absolute right to reject any old notes not properly tendered or any old notes our acceptance of which might, in the opinion of our counsel, be unlawful. We also reserve the right to waive any defect, irregularities or conditions of tender as to particular old notes. Our interpretation of the terms and conditions of the exchange offer, including the instructions in the letter of transmittal, will be final and binding on all parties. Unless waived, all defects or irregularities in connection with tenders of old notes must be cured within such time as we shall determine. Although we intend to notify holders of defects or irregularities with respect to tenders of old notes, neither we, the exchange agent nor any other person will incur any liability for failure to give such notification. Tenders of old notes will not be deemed made until such defects or irregularities have been cured or waived. Any old notes received by the exchange agent that are not properly tendered and as to which the defects or irregularities have not been cured or waived will be returned to the tendering holder promptly following the expiration time.

When We Will Issue New Notes. In all cases, we will issue new notes for old notes that we have accepted for exchange under the exchange offer only after the exchange agent receives, prior to 5:00 p.m., New York City time, on the expiration date,

 

    a book-entry confirmation of such old notes into the exchange agent’s account at DTC; and

 

    a properly transmitted agent’s message.

Such notes will be issued promptly following the expiration or termination of the offer.

Return of Old Notes Not Accepted or Exchanged. If we do not accept any tendered old notes for exchange or if old notes are submitted for a greater principal amount than the holder desires to exchange, the unaccepted or non-exchanged old notes will be returned without expense to their tendering holder. Such non-exchanged old notes will be credited to an account maintained with DTC. These actions will occur promptly after the expiration or termination of the exchange offer.

Your Representations to Us. By agreeing to be bound by the letter of transmittal, you will represent to us that, among other things:

 

    any new notes to be received by you will be acquired in the ordinary course of your business;

 

    you have no arrangement or understanding with any person or entity to participate in the distribution (within the meaning of the Securities Act) of the new notes in violation of the provisions of the Securities Act;

 

    you are not an “affiliate,” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act, of us or our subsidiary guarantors; and

 

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    if you are a broker-dealer that will receive new notes for your own account in exchange for old notes that were acquired as a result of market-making or other trading activities, then you will deliver this prospectus (or, to the extent permitted by law, make this prospectus available to purchasers) in connection with any resale of the new notes.

Each broker-dealer that receives new notes for its own account in exchange for old notes, where such securities were acquired by such broker-dealer as a result of market making activities or other trading activities, must acknowledge that it will deliver a prospectus that meets the requirements of the Securities Act in connection with any resale of the new notes. See “Plan of Distribution.”

Withdrawal of Tenders

Except as otherwise provided in this prospectus, you may withdraw your tender at any time prior to 5:00 p.m., New York City time, on the expiration date of the exchange offer. For a withdrawal to be effective you must comply with the appropriate ATOP procedures. Any notice of withdrawal must specify the name and number of the account at DTC to be credited with withdrawn old notes and otherwise comply with the ATOP procedures.

We will determine in our sole discretion all questions as to the validity, form, eligibility and time of receipt of a notice of withdrawal. Our determination shall be final and binding on all parties. We will deem any old notes so withdrawn not to have been validly tendered for exchange for purposes of the exchange offer.

Any old notes that have been tendered for exchange but that are not exchanged for any reason will be credited to an account maintained with DTC for the old notes. This return or crediting will take place promptly after withdrawal, rejection of tender, expiration or termination of the exchange offer. You may retender properly withdrawn old notes by following the procedures described under “—Procedures for Tendering” above at any time on or prior to the expiration time.

Conditions to the Exchange Offer

We will not be required to accept for exchange, or exchange any new notes for, any old notes if the exchange offer, or the making of any exchange by a holder of old notes, would violate applicable law or SEC policy. Similarly, we may terminate the exchange offer as provided in this prospectus before accepting old notes for exchange in the event of such a potential violation.

We will not be obligated to accept for exchange the old notes of any holder that has not made to us the representations described under “—Procedures for Tendering” and “Plan of Distribution” and such other representations as may be reasonably necessary under applicable SEC rules, regulations or interpretations to allow us to use an appropriate form to register the new notes under the Securities Act.

Additionally, we will not accept for exchange any old notes tendered, and will not issue new notes in exchange for any such old notes, if at such time any stop order has been threatened or is in effect with respect to the exchange offer registration statement of which this prospectus constitutes a part or the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

We expressly reserve the right to amend or terminate the exchange offer, and to reject for exchange any old notes not previously accepted for exchange, upon the occurrence of any of the conditions to the exchange offer specified above. We will promptly give written notice of any extension, amendment, non-acceptance or termination to the holders of the old notes.

These conditions are for our sole benefit, and we may assert them or waive them in whole or in part at any time or at various times prior to the expiration of the exchange offer in our sole discretion. If we fail at any time to exercise any of these rights, this failure will not mean that we have waived our rights. Each such right will be deemed an ongoing right that we may assert at any time or at various times prior to the expiration of the exchange offer.

 

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Exchange Agent

U.S. Bank National Association has been appointed as the exchange agent for the exchange offer. All executed letters of transmittal and any other required documents should be directed to the exchange agent at the address or facsimile number set forth below. Questions and requests for assistance and requests for additional copies of this prospectus or of the letter of transmittal should be directed to the exchange agent addressed as follows:

U.S. Bank National Association

Attn: Specialized Finance

111 Fillmore Avenue

St. Paul, MN 55107-1402

By Facsimile (for Eligible Institutions only): 651-495-8158 Attention: Specialized Finance

For Information or Confirmation by Electronic Mail: escrowexchangepayments@usbank.com

Delivery of the letter of transmittal to an address other than as set forth above or transmission of the letter of transmittal via a facsimile transmission to a number, or via electronic mail to an address, other than as set forth above will not constitute a valid delivery of the letter of transmittal. Delivery of documents to The Depository Trust Company does not constitute delivery to the exchange agent.

Fees and Expenses

We will bear the expenses of soliciting tenders. The principal solicitation is being made by e-mail; however, we may make additional solicitation by mail, telephone or in person by our officers and regular employees and those of our affiliates. We have not retained any dealer-manager in connection with the exchange offer and will not make any payments to broker-dealers or others soliciting acceptances of the exchange offer. We will, however, pay the exchange agent reasonable and customary fees for its services and reimburse it for its related reasonable out-of-pocket expenses.

We will pay the cash expenses to be incurred in connection with the exchange offer. They include:

 

    SEC registration fees;

 

    fees and expenses of the exchange agent and trustee;

 

    accounting and legal fees and printing costs; and

 

    related fees and expenses.

Transfer Taxes

We will pay all transfer taxes, if any, applicable to the exchange of old notes under the exchange offer. Each tendering holder, however, will be required to pay any transfer taxes, whether imposed on the registered holder or any other person, if a transfer tax is imposed for any reason other than the exchange of old notes under the exchange offer.

Consequences of Failure to Exchange

If you do not exchange your old notes for new notes under the exchange offer, the old notes you hold will continue to be subject to the existing restrictions on transfer. In general, you may not offer or sell the old notes except under an exemption from, or in a transaction not subject to, the Securities Act and applicable state securities laws. We do not intend to register old notes under the Securities Act unless the registration rights agreement requires us to do so.

 

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Accounting Treatment

We will record the new notes at the same carrying value as the old notes, as reflected in our accounting records on the date of the exchange. Accordingly, we will not recognize any gain or loss for accounting purposes. The expenses of the exchange offer will be amortized over the term of the new notes.

Other

Participation in the exchange offer is voluntary, and you should consider carefully whether to accept. You are urged to consult your financial and tax advisors in making your own decision on what action to take. We may in the future seek to acquire untendered old notes in open market or privately negotiated transactions, through subsequent exchange offers or otherwise. We have no present plans to acquire any old notes that are not tendered in the exchange offer or to file a registration statement to permit resales of any untendered old notes.

USE OF PROCEEDS

The exchange offer is intended to satisfy our obligations under the registration rights agreement. We will not receive any proceeds from the issuance of the new notes in the exchange offer. In consideration for issuing the new notes as contemplated by this prospectus, we will receive old notes in a like principal amount. The form and terms of the new notes are identical in all respects to the form and terms of the old notes, except the new notes will be registered under the Securities Act of 1933 and will not contain restrictions on transfer, registration rights or provisions for additional interest. Old notes surrendered in exchange for the new notes will be retired and cancelled and will not be reissued. Accordingly, the issuance of the new notes will not result in any change in outstanding indebtedness.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF NEW NOTES

In this description, the word “Company” refers only to Callon Petroleum Company and not to any of its Subsidiaries.

The Company will issue the notes under an indenture among itself, the Guarantors and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee. The terms of the notes will include those stated in the indenture and those made part of the indenture by reference to the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (the “Trust Indenture Act”).

The following description is a summary of the material provisions of the indenture and the registration rights agreement. It does not restate those agreements in their entirety. We urge you to read the indenture and the registration rights agreement because they, and not this description, will define your rights as holders of the notes. Copies of the indenture and the registration rights agreement are available as set forth below under “—Additional Information.” Certain defined terms used in this description but not defined below under “—Certain Definitions” have the meanings assigned to them in the indenture and the registration rights agreement. As used in this “Description of New Notes,” except as otherwise specified, the term “Notes” means the new notes, the old notes and any additional notes that may be issued under the Indenture. All such notes will vote together as a single class for all purposes of the Indenture.

The registered holder of a note will be treated as the owner of it for all purposes. Only registered holders will have rights under the indenture. All references to “holders” in this description are to registered holders of the notes.

Brief description of the notes and the note guarantees

The notes

The notes will be:

 

    general unsecured obligations of the Company;

 

    pari passu in right of payment with all existing and future senior indebtedness of the Company;

 

    senior in right of payment to any future subordinated Indebtedness of the Company;

 

    effectively junior to all secured Indebtedness to the extent of the value of the assets securing such Indebtedness;

 

    structurally subordinate in right of payment to all indebtedness and other liabilities, including trade payables, of existing and future subsidiaries that do not guarantee the notes; and

 

    unconditionally guaranteed by the Guarantor.

At December 31, 2016:

 

    the Company had $400 million of notes outstanding;

 

    the Company and the Guarantors had $0 million of secured Indebtedness outstanding with elected commitments available for borrowing under the borrowing base of $385 million, under the Credit Agreement, to which the notes rank junior to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such obligations, and $400 million of unsecured debt outstanding (including the notes); and

 

    the Company’s Subsidiaries that will not be Guarantors had obligations (including trade payables but excluding intercompany obligations) outstanding of approximately $0 million, to which the notes rank structurally junior.

 

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The note guarantees

Initially, the notes will be guaranteed by the Company’s only current material Domestic Subsidiary, Callon Petroleum Operating Company, and by certain of its future Domestic Subsidiaries. Substantially all of the Company’s operations are currently conducted through Callon Petroleum Operating Company. Initially, the notes will not be guaranteed by the Company’s two other existing subsidiaries, Callon Offshore Production, Inc. and Mississippi Marketing, Inc., which represent 0% of the Company’s consolidated assets at December 31, 2016 and 0% and 0% of the Company’s consolidated revenue for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2016, respectively, and do not guarantee any Obligations under the Credit Agreement.

Each Note Guarantee will be:

 

    a general unsecured obligation of the Guarantor;

 

    pari passu in right of payment with all existing and future senior Indebtedness of that Guarantor; and

 

    senior in right of payment to all existing and future subordinated Indebtedness of that Guarantor.

The notes and the Note Guarantees will be effectively subordinated to all borrowings and other liabilities of the Guarantor under the Credit Agreement, and any other existing or future secured Indebtedness to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such Indebtedness. The notes and the Note Guarantees will also be structurally subordinated to all indebtedness and other liabilities of any of our future Subsidiaries that do not Guarantee the notes. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to this Offering and the Notes—The notes and the guarantees will be unsecured obligations and will be effectively subordinated to all of our existing and future secured indebtedness to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness and structurally subordinated to liabilities of any non-guarantor subsidiaries.”

As of the date of the indenture, all of our Subsidiaries will be Restricted Subsidiaries. However, under the circumstances described below under the caption “—Certain Covenants—Designation of Restricted and Unrestricted Subsidiaries,” we will be permitted to designate certain of our Subsidiaries as “Unrestricted Subsidiaries.” Unrestricted Subsidiaries will not be subject to many of the restrictive covenants in the indenture and will not guarantee the notes. In the event of a bankruptcy, liquidation or reorganization of any Unrestricted Subsidiary, such Unrestricted Subsidiary will pay the holders of its debt and its trade creditors before it will be able to distribute any of its assets to the Company.

Principal, maturity and interest

The Company will issue $400 million in aggregate principal amount of notes in this offering. The Company may issue additional notes under the indenture from time to time after this offering; provided, however, that if the additional notes are not fungible with the notes issued in this offering for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the additional notes will have a separate CUSIP number. Any issuance of additional notes is subject to all of the covenants in the indenture, including the covenant described below under the caption “—Certain Covenants—Incurrence of Indebtedness and Issuance of Preferred Stock.” The notes, any exchange notes issued under the registration rights agreement and any additional notes subsequently issued under the indenture will be treated as a single class for all purposes under the indenture, including, waivers, amendments, redemptions and offers to purchase. The Company will issue notes in denominations of $2,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 in excess of $2,000. The notes will mature on October 1, 2024.

Interest on the notes will accrue at the rate of 6.125% per annum and will be payable semi-annually in arrears on April 1 and October 1, commencing on April 1, 2017. The Company will make each interest payment to the holders of record on the immediately preceding April 1 and October 1. If a payment date falls on a day that is not a business day, the payment to be made on such payment date will be made on the next succeeding business day with the same force and effect as if made on such payment date, and no additional interest will accrue as a result of such delayed payment.

 

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Special Interest may accrue on the notes as liquidated damages in certain circumstances described under the caption “—Registration Rights; Special Interest.” All references to “interest” in this description are deemed to include any Special Interest that may be payable on the notes pursuant to the registration rights agreement.

Interest on the notes will accrue from the date of original issuance or, if interest has already been paid, from the date it was most recently paid. Interest will be computed on the basis of a 360-day year comprised of twelve 30-day months.

Methods of receiving payments on the notes

If a holder of notes has given wire transfer instructions to the Company or the paying agent, the Company will pay all principal of, premium, if any, on, and interest on, that holder’s notes in accordance with those instructions. All other payments on the notes will be made at the office or agency of the paying agent and registrar within New York City and the State of New York unless the Company elects to make interest payments by check mailed to the noteholders at their respective addresses set forth in the register of holders.

Paying agent and registrar for the notes

The trustee will initially act as paying agent and registrar. The Company may change the paying agent or registrar without prior notice to the holders of the notes, and the Company or any of its Subsidiaries may act as paying agent or registrar.

Transfer and exchange

A holder may transfer or exchange notes in accordance with the provisions of the indenture. The registrar and the trustee may require a holder, among other things, to furnish appropriate endorsements and transfer documents in connection with a transfer of notes. Holders will be required to pay all taxes due on transfer. The Company will not be required to transfer or exchange any note selected for redemption. Also, the Company will not be required to transfer or exchange any note for a period of 15 days before a selection of notes to be redeemed or between a record date and the next succeeding interest payment date.

Note guarantees

The notes initially will be guaranteed by the Company’s only current material Domestic Subsidiary, Callon Petroleum Operating Company. Initially, the notes will not be guaranteed by the Company’s two other existing subsidiaries, Callon Offshore Production, Inc. and Mississippi Marketing, Inc., which represent 0% of the Company’s consolidated assets at December 31, 2016, 2016 and 0% and 0% of the Company’s consolidated revenue for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2016, respectively, and do not guarantee any Obligations under the Credit Agreement. In the future, Domestic Subsidiaries of the Company that Guarantee or otherwise become obligated with respect to Indebtedness under a Credit Facility will be required to Guarantee the notes under the circumstances described under “—Certain Covenants—Additional Note Guarantees.” These Note Guarantees will be joint and several obligations of the Guarantors. The obligations of each Guarantor under its Note Guarantee will be limited as necessary to prevent that Note Guarantee from constituting a fraudulent conveyance under applicable law, although this limitation may not be effective to prevent the Subsidiary Guarantees from being voided in bankruptcy. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to this Offering and the Notes—Federal and state statutes allow courts, under specific circumstances, to void guarantees and require noteholders to return payments received from guarantors.”

A Guarantor may not: (1) consolidate or merge with or into another Person (whether or not such Guarantor is the surviving Person), or (2) sell, assign, transfer, convey or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of the properties or assets of such Guarantor in one or more related transactions, to another Person, other than the Company or another Guarantor, unless:

 

(1) immediately after giving effect to such transaction or series of transactions, no Default or Event of Default exists; and

 

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(2) either:

 

  (a) the Person acquiring the properties or assets in any such sale, assignment, transfer, conveyance, or other disposition or the Person formed by or surviving any such consolidation or merger (if other than the Guarantor) unconditionally assumes all the obligations of that Guarantor under its Note Guarantee, the indenture and (if then in effect) the registration rights agreement pursuant to a supplemental indenture and a supplement to the registration rights agreement, in form reasonably satisfactory to the trustee; or

 

  (b) the Net Proceeds of such transaction or series of transactions are applied in a manner that does not violate the “Asset Sales” provisions of the indenture.

The Note Guarantee of a Guarantor will automatically be released:

 

(1) in connection with any sale or other disposition of all or substantially all of the properties or assets of that Guarantor by way of merger, consolidation or otherwise, to a Person that is not (either before or after giving effect to such transaction) the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary of the Company if the sale or other disposition does not violate the “Asset Sales” provisions of the indenture;

 

(2) in connection with any sale or other disposition of Capital Stock of that Guarantor by way of merger, consolidation or otherwise to a Person that is not (either before or after giving effect to such transaction) the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary of the Company, if the sale or other disposition does not violate the “Asset Sales” provisions of the indenture and the Guarantor ceases to be a Restricted Subsidiary of the Company as a result of the sale or other disposition;

 

(3) if the Company designates such Guarantor to be an Unrestricted Subsidiary in accordance with the applicable provisions of the indenture;

 

(4) upon the liquidation or dissolution of such Guarantor in a transaction or series of transactions that does not violate the terms of the indenture; or

 

(5) upon Legal Defeasance, Covenant Defeasance or satisfaction and discharge of the indenture as provided below under the captions “—Legal Defeasance and Covenant Defeasance” and “—Satisfaction and Discharge.”

Optional redemption

At any time prior to October 1, 2019, the Company may, on any one or more occasions, redeem up to 35% of the aggregate principal amount of notes issued under the indenture, upon notice as provided in the indenture, at a redemption price equal to 106.125% of the principal amount of the notes redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to the date of redemption (subject to the rights of holders of notes on the relevant record date to receive interest on the relevant interest payment date), with an amount of cash not greater than the net cash proceeds of one or more Equity Offerings by the Company, provided that:

 

(1) at least 65% of the aggregate principal amount of notes originally issued under the indenture (including any additional notes but excluding notes held by the Company and its Subsidiaries) remains outstanding immediately after the occurrence of such redemption; and

 

(2) the redemption occurs within 180 days of the date of the closing of such Equity Offering.

At any time prior to October 1, 2019, the Company may on any one or more occasions redeem all or a part of the notes, upon notice as provided in the indenture, at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the notes redeemed, plus the Applicable Premium, and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to the date of redemption, subject to the rights of holders of notes on the relevant record date to receive interest due on the relevant interest payment date.

 

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On or after October 1, 2019, the Company may on any one or more occasions redeem all or a part of the notes, upon notice as provided in the indenture, at the redemption prices (expressed as percentages of principal amount) set forth below, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on the notes redeemed, to the applicable date of redemption, if redeemed during the twelve-month period beginning on October 1 of the years indicated below, subject to the rights of holders of notes on the relevant record date to receive interest on the relevant interest payment date:

 

Year

   Percentage  

2019

     104.594

2020

     103.063

2021

     101.531

2022 and thereafter

     100.000

Unless the Company defaults in the payment of the redemption price, interest will cease to accrue on the notes or portions thereof called for redemption on the applicable redemption date.

Except pursuant to the preceding paragraphs and the final paragraph under “—Repurchase at the Option of Holders—Change of Control,” the notes will not be redeemable at the Company’s option prior to October 1, 2019. The Company will not be, however, prohibited from acquiring the notes by means other than a redemption, whether pursuant to a tender offer, open market purchase or otherwise, so long as the acquisition does not violate the terms of the indenture.

Mandatory redemption

The Company will not be required to make mandatory redemption or sinking fund payments with respect to the notes.

Repurchase at the option of holders

Change of control

If a Change of Control occurs, each holder of notes will have the right, except as provided below, to require the Company to repurchase all or any part (equal to $2,000 or an integral multiple of $1,000 in excess thereof) of that holder’s notes pursuant to a Change of Control Offer on the terms set forth in the indenture. In the Change of Control Offer, the Company will offer to make a cash payment (a “Change of Control Payment”) equal to 101% of the aggregate principal amount of notes repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on the notes repurchased to the date of purchase (the “Change of Control Purchase Date”), subject to the rights of holders of notes on the relevant record date to receive interest due on the relevant interest payment date. Within 30 days following any Change of Control, the Company will send a notice to each holder describing the transaction or transactions that constitute the Change of Control and offering to repurchase notes properly tendered prior to the expiration date specified in the notice, which date will be no earlier than 30 days and no later than 60 days from the date such notice is sent, pursuant to the procedures required by the indenture and described in such notice.

Promptly following the expiration of the Change of Control Offer, the Company will, to the extent lawful, accept for payment all notes or portions of notes properly tendered pursuant to the Change of Control Offer.

Promptly after such acceptance, the Company will, on the Change of Control Purchase Date:

 

(1) deposit with the paying agent an amount equal to the Change of Control Payment in respect of all notes or portions of notes properly tendered; and

 

(2) deliver or cause to be delivered to the trustee the notes accepted for payment, together with an officers’ certificate stating the aggregate principal amount of notes or portions of notes being purchased by the Company.

 

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The paying agent will promptly mail to each holder of notes properly tendered the Change of Control Payment for such notes (or, if all the notes are then in global form, make such payment through the facilities of DTC), and the trustee will promptly authenticate and mail (or cause to be transferred by book entry) to each holder a new note equal in principal amount to any unpurchased portion of the notes surrendered, if any. The Company will publicly announce the results of the Change of Control Offer on or as soon as practicable after the Change of Control Purchase Date.

The provisions described above that require the Company to make a Change of Control Offer following a Change of Control will be applicable whether or not any other provisions of the indenture are applicable, except as described in the following paragraph. Except as described above with respect to a Change of Control, the indenture will not contain provisions that permit the holders of the notes to require that the Company repurchase or redeem the notes in the event of a takeover, recapitalization or similar transaction.

The Company will not be required to make a Change of Control Offer upon a Change of Control if (1) a third party makes the Change of Control Offer in the manner, at the times and otherwise in compliance with the requirements set forth in the indenture applicable to a Change of Control Offer made by the Company and purchases all notes properly tendered and not withdrawn under the Change of Control Offer, (2) notice of redemption of all outstanding notes has been given pursuant to the indenture as described above under the caption “—Optional Redemption,” unless and until there is a default in payment of the applicable redemption price, or (3) in connection with or in contemplation of any Change of Control, the Company has made an offer to purchase (an “Alternate Offer”) any and all notes validly tendered at a cash price equal to or higher than the Change of Control Payment and has purchased all notes properly tendered in accordance with the terms of the Alternate Offer. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in the indenture, a Change of Control Offer or Alternate Offer may be made in advance of a Change of Control, conditioned upon the consummation of such Change of Control, if a definitive agreement is in place for the Change of Control at the time the Change of Control Offer or Alternate Offer is made. The closing date of any such Change of Control Offer made in advance of a Change of Control may be changed to conform to the actual closing date of the Change of Control; provided that such closing date is not earlier than 30 days nor later than 60 days from the date the Change of Control Offer notice is sent as described in the first paragraph of this section.

The definition of Change of Control includes a phrase relating to the direct or indirect sale, lease, transfer, conveyance or other disposition of “all or substantially all” of the properties or assets of the Company and its Subsidiaries taken as a whole. Although there is a limited body of case law interpreting the phrase “substantially all,” there is no precise established definition of the phrase under applicable law. Accordingly, the ability of a holder of notes to require the Company to repurchase the notes as a result of a sale, lease, transfer, conveyance or other disposition of less than all of the properties or assets of the Company and its Subsidiaries taken as a whole to another Person may be uncertain.

In the event that holders of not less than 90% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding notes accept a Change of Control Offer or Alternate Offer and the Company (or any third party making such Change of Control Offer or Alternate Offer in lieu of the Company as described above) purchases all of the notes held by such holders, the Company will have the right, upon not less than 30 nor more than 60 days prior notice, given not more than 30 days following the purchase pursuant to the Change of Control Offer or Alternate Offer described above, to redeem all of the notes that remain outstanding following such purchase at a redemption price equal to the Change of Control Payment, plus, to the extent not included in the Change of Control Payment, accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on the notes that remain outstanding, to the date of redemption (subject to the rights of holders of record on the relevant record date to receive interest due on an interest payment date that is on or prior to the redemption date).

Repayment of second lien credit agreement

The Company and the Guarantor will, within 30 days following the date on which the notes are originally issued, (i) terminate and pay in full all outstanding Indebtedness, all accrued and unpaid interest, fees and other amounts

 

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owed under the Second Lien Credit Agreement, and (ii) cause all guarantees and liens granted by the Company, the Guarantor and any Subsidiaries securing all such Obligations thereunder to be released.

Asset sales

The Company will not, and will not permit any of its Restricted Subsidiaries to, consummate an Asset Sale unless:

 

(1) the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries, as the case may be, receives consideration at the time of the Asset Sale at least equal to the Fair Market Value (measured as of the date of the definitive agreement with respect to such Asset Sale) of the assets or Equity Interests issued or sold or otherwise disposed of; and

 

(2) at least 75% of the aggregate consideration received in the Asset Sale by the Company or such Restricted Subsidiary and all other Asset Sales since the date of the indenture is in the form of cash or Cash Equivalents. For purposes of this provision, each of the following will be deemed to be cash:

 

  (a) any liabilities, as shown on the Company’s most recent consolidated balance sheet, of the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries (other than contingent liabilities and liabilities that are by their terms subordinated to the notes or any Note Guarantee) that are assumed by the transferee of any such assets pursuant to a novation or indemnity agreement that releases the Company or such Restricted Subsidiary from or indemnifies the Company or such Restricted Subsidiary against further liability;

 

  (b) with respect to any Asset Sale of oil and natural gas properties by the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries where the Company or such Restricted Subsidiary retains an interest in such property, any agreement by the transferee (or an Affiliate thereof) to pay all or a portion of the costs and expenses of the Company or such Restricted Subsidiary related to the exploration, development, completion or production of such properties and activities related thereto;

 

  (c) any securities, notes or other obligations received by the Company or any such Restricted Subsidiary from such transferee that are, within 180 days of the Asset Sale, converted by the Company or such Restricted Subsidiary into cash, to the extent of the cash received in that conversion;

 

  (d) any Capital Stock or assets of the kind referred to in clause (2) or (4) of the next paragraph; and

 

  (e) any Designated Non-cash Consideration received by the Company or such Restricted Subsidiary in such Asset Sale having an aggregate Fair Market Value, taken together with all other Designated Non-cash Consideration received pursuant to this clause (e), not to exceed an amount equal to 5.0% of the Company’s Adjusted Consolidated Net Tangible Assets (determined at the time of receipt of such Designated Non-cash Consideration), with the Fair Market Value of each item of Designated Non-cash Consideration being measured at the time received and without giving effect to subsequent changes in value.

Within 365 days after the receipt of any Net Proceeds from an Asset Sale, the Company or one or more of its Restricted Subsidiaries may apply an amount equal to the amount of such Net Proceeds at its option to any combination of the following:

 

(1) to repay, repurchase or redeem any senior Indebtedness of the Company or any Guarantor, in each case owing to a Person other than the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary;

 

(2) to acquire all or substantially all of the assets, or any Capital Stock, of one or more other Persons primarily engaged in the Oil and Gas Business, if, after giving effect to any such acquisition of Capital Stock, such Person becomes a Restricted Subsidiary of the Company;

 

(3) to make capital expenditures in respect of the Company’s or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries’ Oil and Gas Business; or

 

(4) to acquire other assets that are not classified as current assets under GAAP and that are used or useful in the Oil and Gas Business.

 

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The requirement of clause (2) or (4) of the immediately preceding paragraph shall be deemed to be satisfied if a bona fide binding contract committing to make the acquisition referred to therein is entered into by the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries with a Person other than an Affiliate of the Company within the time period specified in the preceding paragraph and such Net Proceeds are subsequently applied in accordance with such contract within 180 days following the date such agreement is entered into.

Pending the final application of any Net Proceeds, the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries may invest the Net Proceeds in any manner that is not prohibited by the indenture.

If the Net Proceeds from Asset Sales that are not applied or invested as provided in the second and third paragraphs of this section will constitute “Excess Proceeds.” When the aggregate amount of Excess Proceeds exceeds $20.0 million, within five days thereof, the Company will make an offer (an “Asset Sale Offer”) to all holders of notes and all holders of other Indebtedness that is pari passu with the notes containing provisions similar to those set forth in the indenture with respect to offers to purchase, prepay or redeem such Indebtedness with the proceeds of sales of assets, to purchase, prepay or redeem, on a pro rata basis, the maximum principal amount of notes and such other pari passu Indebtedness (plus all accrued interest on the notes and other Indebtedness and the amount of all fees and expenses, including premiums, incurred in connection therewith) that may be purchased, prepaid or redeemed out of the Excess Proceeds. The offer price in any Asset Sale Offer will be equal to 100% of the principal amount, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to the date of purchase, prepayment or redemption, subject to the rights of holders of notes on the relevant record date to receive interest due on the relevant interest payment date, and will be payable in cash. If any Excess Proceeds remain after consummation of an Asset Sale Offer, the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries may use those Excess Proceeds for any purpose not otherwise prohibited by the indenture. If the aggregate principal amount of notes tendered in such Asset Sale Offer exceeds the amount of Excess Proceeds allocated to the purchase of notes, the trustee will select the notes to be purchased on a pro rata basis (except that any notes represented by a note in global form will be selected by such method as DTC or its nominee or successor may require or, where such nominee or successor is the trustee, a method that most nearly approximates pro rata selection as the trustee deems fair and appropriate unless otherwise required by law), based on the amounts tendered (with such adjustments as may be deemed appropriate by the Company so that only notes in denominations of $2,000, or an integral multiple of $1,000 in excess thereof, will be purchased). Upon completion of each Asset Sale Offer, the amount of Excess Proceeds will be reset at zero.

The Company will comply with the requirements of Rule 14e-1 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”) and any other securities laws and regulations thereunder to the extent those laws and regulations are applicable in connection with each repurchase of notes pursuant to a Change of Control Offer or an Asset Sale Offer. To the extent that the provisions of any securities laws or regulations conflict with the “Change of Control” or “Asset Sales” provisions of the indenture, the Company will comply with the applicable securities laws and regulations and will not be deemed to have breached its obligations under the “Change of Control” or “Asset Sales” provisions of the indenture by virtue of such compliance.

The Credit Agreement contains, and future agreements may contain, direct or indirect prohibitions of certain events, including events that would constitute a Change of Control or an Asset Sale and including repurchases of or other prepayments in respect of the notes. The exercise by the holders of notes of their right to require the Company to repurchase the notes upon a Change of Control or an Asset Sale could cause a default under these other agreements, even if the Change of Control or Asset Sale itself does not, due to the financial effect of such repurchases on the Company and its Subsidiaries. In the event a Change of Control or Asset Sale occurs at a time when the Company is effectively prohibited from purchasing notes, the Company could seek the consent of the relevant senior lenders to the purchase of notes or could attempt to refinance the borrowings that contain such prohibition. If the Company does not obtain a consent or repay those borrowings, the Company will remain effectively prohibited from purchasing notes. In that case, the Company’s failure to purchase tendered notes would constitute an Event of Default under the indenture which could, in turn, constitute a default under the other indebtedness. Finally, the Company’s ability to pay cash to the holders of notes upon a repurchase may be

 

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limited by the Company’s then existing financial resources. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to this Offering and the Notes—We may not be able to repurchase the notes upon a change of control.”

Selection and notice

If less than all of the notes are to be redeemed at any time, the trustee will select notes for redemption on a pro rata basis (or, in the case of notes issued in global form as discussed under “—Book-Entry, Delivery and Form,” based on a method as DTC or its nominee or successor may require or, where such nominee or successor is the trustee, a method that most nearly approximates pro rata selection as the trustee deems fair and appropriate unless otherwise required by law) unless otherwise required by law or applicable stock exchange or depositary requirements.

No notes of $2,000 or less can be redeemed in part. Notices of redemption will be mailed by first class mail (or sent electronically if DTC is the recipient) at least 30 but not more than 60 days before the redemption date to each holder of notes to be redeemed at its registered address, except that redemption notices may be sent more than 60 days prior to a redemption date if the notice is issued in connection with a defeasance of the notes or a satisfaction and discharge of the indenture.

Any such redemption may, at the Company’s discretion, be subject to one or more conditions precedent, including any related Equity Offering. If such redemption is subject to the satisfaction of one or more conditions precedent, the related notice shall describe each such condition, and if applicable, shall state that, in the Company’s discretion, the date of redemption may be delayed until such time as any or all such conditions shall be satisfied or waived (provided that in no event shall such date of redemption be delayed to a date later than 60 days after the date on which such notice was sent), or such redemption may not occur and such notice may be rescinded in the event that any or all such conditions shall not have been satisfied or waived by the date of redemption, or by the date of redemption as so delayed.

If any note is to be redeemed in part only, the notice of redemption that relates to that note will state the portion of the principal amount of that note that is to be redeemed. A new note in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the original note will be issued in the name of the holder of notes upon cancellation of the original note. Subject to the provisions of the preceding paragraph, notes called for redemption become due on the date fixed for redemption. On and after the redemption date, interest will cease to accrue on notes or portions of notes called for redemption, unless the Company defaults in making the redemption payment.

Certain covenants

Changes in covenants if notes rated investment grade

If on any date following the date of the indenture:

 

(1) the notes are rated Baa3 or better by Moody’s or BBB- or better by S&P (or, if either such entity ceases to rate the notes for reasons outside of the control of the Company, the equivalent investment grade credit rating from any other “nationally recognized statistical rating organization” within the meaning of Section 3(a)(62) of the Exchange Act selected by the Company as a replacement agency); and

 

(2) no Default or Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing,

then, beginning on that date and subject to the provisions of the following paragraph, the covenants specifically listed under the following captions in this prospectus will be suspended:

 

(1) “—Repurchase at the Option of Holders—Asset Sales”;

 

(2) “—Restricted Payments”;

 

(3) “—Incurrence of Indebtedness and Issuance of Preferred Stock”;

 

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(4) “—Dividend and Other Payment Restrictions Affecting Restricted Subsidiaries”;

 

(5) “—Designation of Restricted and Unrestricted Subsidiaries”;

 

(6) “—Transactions with Affiliates”; and

 

(7) clause (4) of the covenant described below under the caption “—Merger, Consolidation or Sale of Assets.”

During any period that the foregoing covenants have been suspended (the “Suspension Period”), the Company’s Board of Directors may not designate any of its Subsidiaries as Unrestricted Subsidiaries pursuant to the covenant described below under the caption “—Designation of Restricted and Unrestricted Subsidiaries” or the second paragraph of the definition of “Unrestricted Subsidiaries.”

Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the ratings assigned to the notes by both such ratings agencies should subsequently decline to below Baa3 and BBB- from Moody’s or S&P, respectively, the foregoing covenants will be reinstituted as of and from the date both such ratings were below investment grade. Calculations under the reinstated “Restricted Payments” covenant will be made as if the “Restricted Payments” covenant had been in effect since the date of the indenture except that no default will be deemed to have occurred solely by reason of a Restricted Payment made while that covenant was suspended. Furthermore, all Indebtedness incurred, or Disqualified Stock or Preferred Stock issued, during the Suspension Period will be deemed to have been incurred or issued pursuant to clause (2) of the definition of “Permitted Debt.”

In addition, for purposes of the covenant described under “—Transactions with Affiliates,” all agreements and arrangements entered into by the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary with an Affiliate of the Company during the Suspension Period will be deemed to have been entered into prior to the date of the indenture and permitted by clause (7) of such covenant, and for purposes of the covenant described under “—Dividend and Other Payment Restrictions Affecting Restricted Subsidiaries,” all contracts entered into during the Suspension Period that contain any of the restrictions contemplated by such covenant will be deemed to have been existing on the date of the indenture.

There can be no assurance that the notes will ever achieve an investment grade rating or that any such rating will be maintained.

Restricted payments

The Company will not, and will not permit any of its Restricted Subsidiaries to, directly or indirectly:

 

(1) declare or pay any dividend or make any other payment or distribution on account of the Company’s or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries’ Equity Interests (including any payment in connection with any merger or consolidation involving the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries) or to the direct or indirect holders of the Company’s or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries’ Equity Interests in their capacity as such (other than dividends or distributions payable in Equity Interests (other than Disqualified Stock) of the Company and other than dividends or distributions payable to the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary of the Company);

 

(2) repurchase, redeem or otherwise acquire or retire for value (including in connection with any merger or consolidation involving the Company) any Equity Interests of the Company or any direct or indirect parent of the Company;

 

(3) make any payment on or with respect to, or repurchase, redeem, defease or otherwise acquire or retire for value any Indebtedness of the Company or any Guarantor that is contractually subordinated to the notes or to any Note Guarantee (excluding any intercompany Indebtedness between or among the Company and any of its Restricted Subsidiaries), except a payment of interest or principal at the Stated Maturity thereof; or

 

(4) make any Restricted Investment

 

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(all such payments and other actions set forth in these clauses (1) through (4) above being collectively referred to as “Restricted Payments”), unless, at the time of and after giving effect to such Restricted Payment:

 

(a) no Default or Event of Default has occurred and is continuing or would occur as a consequence of such Restricted Payment;

 

(b) the Company would, at the time of such Restricted Payment and after giving pro forma effect thereto as if such Restricted Payment had been made at the beginning of the applicable four-quarter period, have been permitted to incur at least $1.00 of additional Indebtedness pursuant to the Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio test set forth in the first paragraph of the covenant described below under the caption “—Incurrence of Indebtedness and Issuance of Preferred Stock”; and

 

(c) such Restricted Payment, together with the aggregate amount of all other Restricted Payments made by the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries since the date of the indenture (excluding Restricted Payments permitted by clauses (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8), (9) and (10) of the next succeeding paragraph), is less than the sum, without duplication, of:

 

  (i) 50% of the Consolidated Net Income of the Company for the period (taken as one accounting period) from the beginning of the Company’s fiscal quarter in which the notes are originally issued to the end of the Company’s most recently ended fiscal quarter for which internal financial statements are available at the time of such Restricted Payment (or, if such Consolidated Net Income for such period is a deficit, less 100% of such deficit); plus

 

  (ii) 100% of the aggregate net cash proceeds and the Fair Market Value of property or securities other than cash (including Capital Stock of Persons, other than the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company, engaged primarily in the Oil and Gas Business or assets used in the Oil and Gas Business), in each case received by the Company since the date of the indenture as a contribution to its common equity capital or from the issue or sale of Equity Interests of the Company (other than (i) Disqualified Stock and (ii) net cash proceeds received from an issuance or sale of such Equity Interests to a Subsidiary of the Company or an employee stock ownership plan, option plan or similar trust to the extent such sale to an employee stock ownership plan, option plan or similar trust is financed by loans from or Guaranteed by the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary (unless such loans have been repaid with cash on or prior to the date of determination)); plus

 

  (iii) to the extent not already included in Consolidated Net Income for such period, if any Restricted Investment that was made by the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries after the date of the indenture is sold for cash (other than to the Company or any Subsidiary of the Company) or otherwise cancelled, liquidated or repaid for cash, the cash return of capital with respect to such Restricted Investment resulting from such sale, liquidation or repayment (less any out-of-pocket costs incurred in connection with any such sale); plus

 

  (iv) the amount by which Indebtedness of the Company or its Restricted Subsidiaries is reduced on the Company’s balance sheet upon the conversion or exchange (other than by a Subsidiary of the Company) subsequent to the date of the indenture of any such Indebtedness for Equity Interests (other than Disqualified Stock) of the Company (less the amount of any cash, or the Fair Market Value of any other property (other than such Equity Interests), distributed by the Company upon such conversion or exchange and excluding the net cash proceeds from the conversion or exchange financed, directly or indirectly, using funds borrowed from the Company or any Subsidiary), together with the net proceeds, if any, received by the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries upon such conversion or exchange; plus

 

  (v)

to the extent that any Unrestricted Subsidiary of the Company designated as such after the date of the indenture is redesignated as a Restricted Subsidiary pursuant to the terms of the indenture or is merged or consolidated with or into, or transfers or otherwise disposes of all of substantially all of its properties or assets to or is liquidated into, the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary after the date of the indenture, the lesser of, as of the date of such redesignation, merger, consolidation, transfer, disposition or

 

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  liquidation, (A) the Fair Market Value of the Company’s Restricted Investment in such Subsidiary (or of the properties or assets disposed of, as applicable) as of the date of such redesignation, merger, consolidation, transfer, disposition or liquidation and (B) such Fair Market Value as of the date on which such Subsidiary was originally designated as an Unrestricted Subsidiary after the date of the indenture; plus

 

  (vi) any dividends or distributions received in cash by the Company or a Guarantor after the date of the indenture from an Unrestricted Subsidiary of the Company, to the extent that such dividends or distributions were not otherwise included in the Consolidated Net Income of the Company for such period.

The preceding provisions will not prohibit:

 

(1) the payment of any dividend or distribution or the consummation of any irrevocable redemption within 60 days after the date of declaration of the dividend or distribution or giving of the redemption notice, as the case may be, if at the date of declaration or notice, the dividend, distribution or redemption payment would have complied with the provisions of the indenture;

 

(2) the making of any Restricted Payment in exchange for, or out of or with the net cash proceeds of the substantially concurrent sale (other than to a Subsidiary of the Company) of, Equity Interests of the Company (other than Disqualified Stock) or from the substantially concurrent contribution of common equity capital to the Company; provided that the amount of any such net cash proceeds that are utilized for any such Restricted Payment will not be considered to be net proceeds of Equity Interests for purposes of clause (c)(ii) of the preceding paragraph and will not be considered to be net cash proceeds from an Equity Offering for purposes of the “Optional Redemption” provisions of the indenture;

 

(3) the payment of any dividend or distribution by a Restricted Subsidiary of the Company to the holders of its Equity Interests on a pro rata basis;

 

(4) the repurchase, redemption, defeasance or other acquisition or retirement for value of Indebtedness of the Company or any Guarantor that is contractually subordinated to the notes or to any Note Guarantee with the net cash proceeds from a substantially concurrent incurrence of Permitted Refinancing Indebtedness;

 

(5) repurchases of Indebtedness of the Company or any Guarantor that is contractually subordinated in right of payment to the notes or a Note Guarantee at a purchase price not greater than (i) 101% of the principal amount of such subordinated Indebtedness in the event of a Change of Control or (ii) 100% of the principal amount of such subordinated Indebtedness in the event of an Asset Sale, in each case, plus accrued and unpaid interest thereon, to the extent required by the terms of such Indebtedness, but only if:

 

  (a) in the case of a Change of Control, the Company has first complied with and fully satisfied its obligations under the provisions described under “—Repurchase at the Option of Holders—Change of Control”; or

 

  (b) in the case of an Asset Sale, the Company has complied with and fully satisfied its obligations in accordance with the covenant under the heading “—Repurchase at the Option of Holders—Asset Sales”;

 

(6) so long as no Default or Event of Default has occurred and is continuing, the repurchase, redemption or other acquisition or retirement for value of any Equity Interests of the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary of the Company held by any current or former officer, director or employee of the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries pursuant to any equity subscription agreement, stock option agreement, shareholders’ agreement or similar agreement; provided that the aggregate price paid for all such repurchased, redeemed, acquired or retired Equity Interests may not exceed $5.0 million in any twelve-month period (with unused amounts in any twelve-month period being carried over to succeeding twelve- month periods);

 

(7)

the repurchase of Equity Interests deemed to occur upon the exercise of stock or other equity options to the extent such Equity Interests represent a portion of the exercise price of those stock or other equity options

 

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  and any repurchase or other acquisition of Equity Interests made in lieu of withholding taxes in connection with any exercise or exchange of stock options, warrants, incentives or other rights to acquire Equity Interests;

 

(8) so long as no Default or Event of Default has occurred and is continuing or would be caused thereby, the declaration and payment of regularly scheduled or accrued dividends or distributions to holders of any class or series of Disqualified Stock of the Company or any Preferred Stock of any Restricted Subsidiary of the Company issued on or after the date of the indenture in accordance with the Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio test described below under the caption “—Incurrence of Indebtedness and Issuance of Preferred Stock”;

 

(9) payments of cash, dividends, distributions, advances or other Restricted Payments by the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries to allow the payment of cash in lieu of the issuance of fractional shares upon (i) the exercise of options or warrants or (ii) the conversion or exchange of Capital Stock of any such Person;

 

(10) so long as no Default or Event of Default has occurred and is continuing or would be caused thereby, other Restricted Payments in an aggregate amount not to exceed $35.0 million since the date of the indenture;

 

(11) repurchases or redemptions of shares of common Equity Interests of the Company from any holder of less than 100 shares of such common Equity Interests; provided that the aggregate amount paid for all such repurchases or redemptions shall not exceed $1.0 million in any fiscal year;

 

(12) so long as no Default or Event of Default has occurred and is continuing or would be caused thereby, the declaration and payment of regularly scheduled or accrued dividends or distributions on Preferred Stock of the Company outstanding on the date of the indenture, and any Preferred Stock issued after the date of the indenture to replace or refinance such Preferred Stock permitted under the indenture, in an aggregate amount not to exceed $10.0 million in any fiscal year; and

 

(13) so long as no Default or Event of Default has occurred and is continuing or would be caused thereby, the repurchase, redemption or other acquisition or retirement for value of any Preferred Stock of the Company outstanding on the date of the indenture, in an aggregate amount not to exceed $75.0 million, plus any accrued and unpaid dividends thereon; provided that after giving effect to such Restricted Payment (i) Consolidated Liquidity would be greater than $100.0 million, and (ii) the Leverage Ratio would be no greater than 3.50 to 1.00.

The amount of all Restricted Payments (other than cash) will be the Fair Market Value on the date of the Restricted Payment (or, in the case of a dividend or distribution, on the date of declaration) of the asset(s) or securities proposed to be transferred or issued by the Company or such Restricted Subsidiary, as the case may be, pursuant to the Restricted Payment. The Fair Market Value of any assets or securities that are required to be valued by this covenant will be determined, in the case of amounts of $20.0 million or more, by the Board of Directors of the Company whose resolution with respect thereto will be delivered to the trustee.

Incurrence of indebtedness and issuance of preferred stock

The Company will not, and will not permit any of its Restricted Subsidiaries to, create, incur, issue, assume, Guarantee or otherwise become directly or indirectly liable, contingently or otherwise, with respect to (collectively, “incur”) any Indebtedness (including Acquired Debt), and the Company will not issue any Disqualified Stock and will not permit any of its Restricted Subsidiaries to issue any Preferred Stock; provided, however, that the Company may incur Indebtedness (including Acquired Debt) or issue Disqualified Stock, and the Guarantors may incur Indebtedness (including Acquired Debt) or issue Preferred Stock, if the Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio for the Company’s most recently ended four full fiscal quarters for which internal financial statements are available immediately preceding the date on which such additional Indebtedness is incurred or such Disqualified Stock or such Preferred Stock is issued, as the case may be, would have been at least 2.25 to 1.0, determined on a pro forma basis (including a pro forma application of the net proceeds therefrom), as if the additional Indebtedness had been incurred or the Disqualified Stock or the Preferred Stock had been issued, as the case may be, at the beginning of such four-quarter period.

 

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The first paragraph of this covenant will not prohibit the incurrence of any of the following items of Indebtedness or issuances of Disqualified Stock or Preferred Stock, as applicable (collectively, “Permitted Debt”):

 

(1) the incurrence by the Company and any Guarantor of additional Indebtedness and letters of credit under Credit Facilities in an aggregate principal amount at any one time outstanding under this clause (1) (with letters of credit being deemed to have a principal amount equal to the maximum potential liability of the Company and the Guarantors thereunder) not to exceed the greater of (i) $500.0 million and (ii) $300.0 million plus 35.0% of the Company’s Adjusted Consolidated Net Tangible Assets determined as of the date of such incurrence;

 

(2) the incurrence by the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries of the Existing Indebtedness;

 

(3) the incurrence by the Company and the Guarantors of Indebtedness represented by the notes and the related Note Guarantees to be issued on the date of the indenture and the exchange notes and the related Note Guarantees to be issued pursuant to the registration rights agreement;

 

(4) the incurrence by the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries of Indebtedness represented by Capital Lease Obligations, mortgage financings or purchase money obligations, in each case, incurred for the purpose of financing all or any part of the purchase price or cost of design, construction, installation or improvement of property, plant or equipment used in the business of the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries, in an aggregate principal amount outstanding, including all Permitted Refinancing Indebtedness incurred to renew, refund, refinance, replace, defease or discharge any Indebtedness incurred pursuant to this clause (4), not to exceed the greater of (i) $40.0 million and (ii) 3.0% of the Company’s Adjusted Consolidated Net Tangible Assets determined as of the date of such incurrence;

 

(5) the incurrence by the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries of Permitted Refinancing Indebtedness in exchange for, or the net proceeds of which are used to renew, refund, refinance, replace, defease or discharge any Indebtedness (other than intercompany Indebtedness) of the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries or any Disqualified Stock of the Company, in each case that was incurred under the first paragraph of this covenant or clause (2), (3), (4), (5), or (14) of this paragraph;

 

(6) the incurrence by the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries of intercompany Indebtedness between or among the Company and any of its Restricted Subsidiaries; provided, however, that:

 

  (a) if the Company or any Guarantor is the obligor on such Indebtedness and the payee is not the Company or a Guarantor, such Indebtedness must be unsecured and expressly subordinated to the prior payment in full in cash of all Obligations then due with respect to the notes, in the case of the Company, or the Note Guarantee, in the case of a Guarantor; and

 

  (b) (i) any subsequent issuance or transfer of Equity Interests that results in any such Indebtedness being held by a Person other than the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary of the Company and (ii) any sale or other transfer of any such Indebtedness to a Person that is not either the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary of the Company, will be deemed, in each case, to constitute an incurrence of such Indebtedness by the Company or such Restricted Subsidiary, as the case may be, that was not permitted by this clause (6);

 

(7) the issuance by any of the Company’s Restricted Subsidiaries to the Company or to any of its Restricted Subsidiaries of any Preferred Stock; provided, however, that:

 

  (a) any subsequent issuance or transfer of Equity Interests that results in any such Preferred Stock being held by a Person other than the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary of the Company; and

 

  (b) any sale or other transfer of any such Preferred Stock to a Person that is not either the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary of the Company,

will be deemed, in each case, to constitute an issuance of such Preferred Stock by such Restricted Subsidiary that was not permitted by this clause (7);

 

(8) the incurrence by the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries of Hedging Obligations in the ordinary course of business and not for speculative purposes;

 

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(9) the Guarantee by the Company or any of the Guarantors of Indebtedness of the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary of the Company to the extent that the Guaranteed Indebtedness was permitted to be incurred by another provision of this covenant; provided that if the Indebtedness being Guaranteed is subordinated to or pari passu with the notes, then the Guarantee must be subordinated or pari passu, as applicable, to the same extent as the Indebtedness Guaranteed;

 

(10) the incurrence by the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries of Indebtedness in respect of workers’ compensation claims, self-insurance obligations, bankers’ acceptances, performance, bid, plugging and abandonment, appeal, reimbursement, performance, surety and similar bonds, and completion guarantees provided by the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary of the Company in the ordinary course of business and any Guarantees or letters of credit functioning as or supporting any of the foregoing bonds or obligations and workers’ compensation claims in the ordinary course of business;

 

(11) the incurrence by the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries of Indebtedness arising from the honoring by a bank or other financial institution of a check, draft or similar instrument inadvertently drawn against insufficient funds, so long as such Indebtedness is covered within five business days;

 

(12) the incurrence by the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries of in-kind obligations relating to net oil or natural gas balancing positions arising in the ordinary course of business;

 

(13) any obligation arising from agreements of the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary of the Company providing for indemnification, adjustment of purchase price, earn outs, or similar obligations, in each case, incurred or assumed in connection with the disposition or acquisition of any business, assets or Capital Stock of a Restricted Subsidiary in a transaction permitted by the indenture; provided that such obligation is not reflected as a liability on the face of the balance sheet of the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary;

 

(14) any Permitted Acquisition Indebtedness; and

 

(15) the incurrence by the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries of additional Indebtedness or the issuance by the Company of any Disqualified Stock in an aggregate principal amount (or accreted value, as applicable) at any time outstanding, including all Permitted Refinancing Indebtedness incurred to renew, refund, refinance, replace, defease or discharge any Indebtedness incurred or Disqualified Stock issued pursuant to this clause (15), not to exceed, at any one time outstanding, the greater of (i) $50.0 million and (ii) 5.0% of the Company’s Adjusted Consolidated Net Tangible Assets determined as of the date of such incurrence or issuance.

The Company will not incur, and will not permit any Guarantor to incur, any Indebtedness (including Permitted Debt) that is contractually subordinated in right of payment to any other Indebtedness of the Company or such Guarantor unless such Indebtedness is also contractually subordinated in right of payment to the notes or the applicable Note Guarantee on substantially identical terms; provided, however, that no Indebtedness will be deemed to be contractually subordinated in right of payment to any other Indebtedness of the Company or any Guarantor solely by virtue of being unsecured or by virtue of being secured on a junior priority basis.

For purposes of determining compliance with this “Incurrence of Indebtedness and Issuance of Preferred Stock” covenant, in the event that an item of Indebtedness meets the criteria of more than one of the categories of Permitted Debt described in clauses (1) through (15) above, or is entitled to be incurred pursuant to the first paragraph of this covenant, the Company will be permitted to divide, classify and reclassify such item of Indebtedness on the date of its incurrence, or later redivide or reclassify all or a portion of such item of Indebtedness, in any manner that complies with this covenant. Indebtedness under Credit Facilities outstanding on the date on which notes are first issued and authenticated under the indenture will initially be deemed to have been incurred on such date in reliance on the exception provided by clause (1) of the definition of Permitted Debt and may not be reclassified, and Indebtedness under the Second Lien Credit Agreement will be deemed incurred under clause (2) of the definition of Permitted Debt and may not be reclassified. The accrual of interest or Preferred Stock or Disqualified Stock dividends or distributions, the accretion or amortization of original issue discount, the payment of interest on any Indebtedness not secured by a Lien in the form of additional

 

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Indebtedness with the same terms, the reclassification of Preferred Stock or Disqualified Stock as Indebtedness due to a change in accounting principles, and the payment of dividends or distributions on Preferred Stock or Disqualified Stock in the form of additional shares or units of the same class of Preferred Stock or Disqualified Stock will not be deemed to be an incurrence of Indebtedness or an issuance of Preferred Stock or Disqualified Stock for purposes of this covenant; provided, in each such case, that the amount thereof is included in Fixed Charges of the Company as accrued to the extent required by the definition of such term.

The amount of any Indebtedness outstanding as of any date will be:

 

(1) the accreted value of the Indebtedness, in the case of any Indebtedness issued with original issue discount;

 

(2) the principal amount of the Indebtedness, in the case of any other Indebtedness; and

 

(3) in respect of Indebtedness of another Person secured by a Lien on the assets of the specified Person, the lesser of:

 

  (a) the Fair Market Value of such assets at the date of determination; and

 

  (b) the amount of the Indebtedness of the other Person.

Liens

The Company will not, and will not permit any of its Restricted Subsidiaries to, directly or indirectly, create, incur or assume any Lien (an “Initial Lien”) of any kind (other than Permitted Liens) securing Indebtedness upon any of their property or assets now owned or hereafter acquired, unless the notes or any Note Guarantee of such Restricted Subsidiary, as applicable, are secured on an equal and ratable basis with the Indebtedness so secured until such time as such Indebtedness is no longer secured by the Initial Lien.

Any Lien created for the benefit of the holders of the notes pursuant to the preceding paragraph shall provide by its terms that such Lien shall be automatically and unconditionally released and discharged upon the release and discharge of the Initial Lien.

Dividend and other payment restrictions affecting restricted subsidiaries

The Company will not, and will not permit any of its Restricted Subsidiaries to, directly or indirectly, create or permit to exist or become effective any consensual encumbrance or restriction on the ability of any Restricted Subsidiary to:

 

(1) pay dividends or make any other distributions on its Capital Stock to the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries, or with respect to any other interest or participation in, or measured by, its profits, or pay any Indebtedness owed to the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries; provided that the priority that any series of Preferred Stock of a Restricted Subsidiary has in receiving dividends, distributions or liquidating distributions before dividends, distributions or liquidating distributions are paid in respect of common stock of such Restricted Subsidiary shall not constitute a restriction on the ability to make dividends or distributions on Capital Stock for purposes of this covenant;

 

(2) make loans or advances to the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries (it being understood that the subordination of loans or advances made to the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries to other Indebtedness incurred by the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries shall not be deemed a restriction on the ability to make loans or advances); or

 

(3) sell, lease or transfer any of its properties or assets to the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries.

However, the preceding restrictions will not apply to encumbrances or restrictions existing under or by reason of:

 

(1)

agreements governing Existing Indebtedness and Credit Facilities as in effect on the date of the indenture and any amendments, restatements, modifications, renewals, supplements, refundings, replacements or

 

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  refinancings of those agreements; provided that the encumbrances or restrictions contained in the amendments, restatements, modifications, renewals, supplements, refundings, replacements or refinancings are not in the good faith judgment of an officer of the Company materially more restrictive, taken as a whole, with respect to such dividend and other payment restrictions than those contained in those agreements on the date of the indenture;

 

(2) the indenture, the notes and the Note Guarantees;

 

(3) agreements governing other Indebtedness permitted to be incurred under the provisions of the covenant described above under the caption “—Incurrence of Indebtedness and Issuance of Preferred Stock” and any amendments, restatements, modifications, renewals, supplements, refundings, replacements or refinancings of those agreements; provided that the encumbrances or restrictions contained therein are not, in the reasonable good faith judgment of an officer of the Company, materially more restrictive, taken as a whole, than those contained in the indenture, the notes and the Note Guarantees or the Credit Agreement as in effect on the date of the indenture;

 

(4) applicable law, rule, regulation or order;

 

(5) any instrument governing Indebtedness or Capital Stock of a Person acquired by the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries as in effect at the time of such acquisition (except to the extent such Indebtedness or Capital Stock was incurred in connection with or in contemplation of such acquisition), which encumbrance or restriction is not applicable to any Person, or the properties or assets of any Person, other than the Person, or the property or assets of the Person, so acquired, and any amendments, restatements, modifications, renewals, extensions, supplements, increases, refundings, replacements or refinancings thereof; provided, that the encumbrances and restrictions in any such amendments, restatements, modifications, renewals, extensions, supplements, increases, refundings, replacements or refinancings are, in the reasonable good faith judgment of an officer of the Company, no more restrictive, taken as a whole, than those in effect on the date of the acquisition; provided further, that, in the case of Indebtedness, such Indebtedness was permitted by the terms of the indenture to be incurred;

 

(6) customary non-assignment provisions in Hydrocarbon purchase and sale or exchange agreements or similar operational agreements or in licenses, easements or leases, in each case, entered into in the ordinary course of business;

 

(7) purchase money obligations for property acquired in the ordinary course of business and Capital Lease Obligations that impose restrictions on the property purchased or leased of the nature described in clause (3) of the preceding paragraph;

 

(8) any agreement for the sale or other disposition of a Restricted Subsidiary that restricts distributions by that Restricted Subsidiary pending its sale or other disposition;

 

(9) Permitted Refinancing Indebtedness; provided that the restrictions contained in the agreements governing such Permitted Refinancing Indebtedness are, in the reasonable good faith judgment of an officer of the Company, not materially more restrictive, taken as a whole, than those contained in the agreements governing the Indebtedness being refinanced;

 

(10) Liens permitted to be incurred under the provisions of the covenant described above under the caption “—Liens” that limit the right of the debtor to dispose of the assets subject to such Liens;

 

(11) provisions limiting the disposition or distribution of assets or property in joint venture agreements, asset sale agreements, sale-leaseback agreements, stock sale agreements and other similar agreements (including agreements entered into in connection with a Restricted Investment) entered into with the approval of the Company’s Board of Directors, which limitation is applicable only to the assets that are the subject of such agreements;

 

(12) encumbrances or restrictions applicable only to a Restricted Subsidiary that is not a Domestic Subsidiary;

 

(13) encumbrances or restrictions on cash or other deposits or net worth imposed by customers or lessors under contracts or leases entered into in the ordinary course of business; and

 

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(14) customary encumbrances and restrictions contained in agreements of the types described in the definition of “Permitted Business Investments.”

Merger, consolidation or sale of assets

The Company will not: (1) consolidate or merge with or into another Person (whether or not the Company is the surviving Person), or (2) sell, assign, transfer, convey, lease or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of the properties or assets of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries taken as a whole, in one or more related transactions, to another Person, unless:

 

(1) either: (a) the Company is the surviving Person; or (b) the Person formed by or surviving any such consolidation or merger (if other than the Company) or to which such sale, assignment, transfer, conveyance, lease or other disposition has been made is an entity organized or existing under the laws of the United States, any state of the United States or the District of Columbia; and, if such entity is not a corporation, a co-obligor of the notes is a corporation organized or existing under any such laws;

 

(2) the Person formed by or surviving any such consolidation or merger (if other than the Company) or the Person to which such sale, assignment, transfer, conveyance, lease or other disposition has been made assumes all the obligations of the Company under the notes, the indenture and (if then in effect) the registration rights agreement pursuant to a supplemental indenture and a supplement to the registration rights agreement, in form reasonably satisfactory to the trustee;

 

(3) immediately after giving effect to such transaction, no Default or Event of Default exists; and

 

(4) the Company or the Person formed by or surviving any such consolidation or merger (if other than the Company), or to which such sale, assignment, transfer, conveyance, lease or other disposition has been made would, on the date of such transaction after giving pro forma effect thereto and any related financing transactions as if the same had occurred at the beginning of the applicable four-quarter period (a) be permitted to incur at least $1.00 of additional Indebtedness pursuant to the Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio test set forth in the first paragraph of the covenant described above under the caption “—Incurrence of Indebtedness and Issuance of Preferred Stock” or (b) have had a Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio equal to or greater than the actual Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio for the Company for such four-quarter period.

This “Merger, Consolidation or Sale of Assets” covenant will not apply to any sale, assignment, transfer, conveyance, lease or other disposition of properties or assets between or among the Company and its Guarantors. Clauses (3) and (4) of the first paragraph of this covenant will not apply to (1) any merger or consolidation of the Company with or into one of its Restricted Subsidiaries for any purpose or (2) with or into an Affiliate solely for the purpose of reincorporating the Company in another jurisdiction.

Upon any consolidation or merger or any sale, assignment, transfer, conveyance, lease or other disposition of all or substantially all of the properties or assets of the Company in accordance with the foregoing in which the Company is not the surviving entity, the surviving Person formed by such consolidation or into or with which the Company is merged or to which such sale, assignment, transfer, conveyance, lease or other disposition is made shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Company under the indenture with the same effect as if such surviving Person had been named as the Company in the indenture, and thereafter (except in the case of a lease of all or substantially all of the Company’s properties or assets), the Company will be relieved of all obligations and covenants under the indenture and the notes.

Although there is a limited body of case law interpreting the phrase “substantially all,” there is no precise established definition of the phrase under applicable law. Accordingly, in certain circumstances there may be a degree of uncertainty as to whether a particular transaction would involve “all or substantially all” of the properties or assets of a Person.

 

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Transactions with affiliates

The Company will not, and will not permit any of its Restricted Subsidiaries to, make any payment to or sell, lease, transfer or otherwise dispose of any of its properties or assets to, or purchase any property or assets from, or enter into or make or amend any transaction, contract, agreement, understanding, loan, advance or guarantee with, or for the benefit of, any Affiliate of the Company (each, an “Affiliate Transaction”), unless:

 

(1) the Affiliate Transaction is on terms that are no less favorable to the Company or the relevant Restricted Subsidiary than those that would have been obtained in a comparable transaction by the Company or such Restricted Subsidiary with an unrelated Person or, if in the good faith judgment of the Board of Directors of the Company, no comparable transaction is available with which to compare such Affiliate Transaction, such Affiliate Transaction is otherwise fair to the Company or the relevant Restricted Subsidiary from a financial point of view; and

 

(2) the Company delivers to the trustee:

 

  (a) with respect to any Affiliate Transaction or series of related Affiliate Transactions involving aggregate consideration in excess of $20.0 million, an officers’ certificate certifying that such Affiliate Transaction or series of related Affiliate Transactions complies with this covenant; and

 

  (b) with respect to any Affiliate Transaction or series of related Affiliate Transactions involving aggregate consideration in excess of $40.0 million, a resolution of the Board of Directors of the Company set forth in an officers’ certificate certifying that such Affiliate Transaction or series of related Affiliated Transactions complies with this covenant and that such Affiliate Transaction or series of related Affiliate Transactions has been approved by a majority of the disinterested members of the Board of Directors of the Company, if any.

The following items will not be deemed to be Affiliate Transactions and, therefore, will not be subject to the provisions of the prior paragraph:

 

(1) any employment or consulting agreement, employee benefit plan, officer or director indemnification, compensation or severance agreement or any similar arrangement entered into by the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries in the ordinary course of business and payments pursuant thereto;

 

(2) transactions between or among the Company or its Restricted Subsidiaries;

 

(3) transactions with a Person (other than an Unrestricted Subsidiary of the Company) that is an Affiliate of the Company solely because the Company owns, directly or through a Restricted Subsidiary, an Equity Interest in, or controls, such Person;

 

(4) payment of reasonable and customary fees and reimbursements of expenses (pursuant to indemnity arrangements or otherwise) of officers, directors, employees or consultants of the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries;

 

(5) any issuance of Equity Interests (other than Disqualified Stock) of the Company to Affiliates of the Company;

 

(6) Restricted Payments that do not violate the provisions of the indenture described above under the caption “—Restricted Payments” and any Permitted Investment;

 

(7) [Reserved]

 

(8) payments to an Affiliate in respect of the notes or any other Indebtedness of the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries on the same basis as concurrent payments are made or offered to be made in respect thereof to non-Affiliates;

 

(9) loans or advances to or reimbursements of expenses incurred by employees for moving, entertainment and travel expenses and similar expenditures in the ordinary course of business;

 

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(10) transactions between the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries and any other Person, a director of which is also on the Board of Directors of the Company or any direct or indirect parent company of the Company, and such common director is the sole cause for such other Person to be deemed an Affiliate of the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries; provided, however, that such director abstains from voting as a member of the Board of Directors of the Company or any direct or indirect parent company of the Company, as the case may be, on any transaction with such other Person;

 

(11) in the case of contracts for exploring for, producing, marketing, storing or otherwise handling Hydrocarbons, or activities or services reasonably related or ancillary thereto, or other operational contracts, any such contracts entered into in the ordinary course of business and otherwise in compliance with the terms of the indenture (a) which are fair to the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries or are on terms at least as favorable as might reasonably have been obtained at such time from an unaffiliated party, in either case in the reasonable determination of the Board of Directors of the Company or the senior management thereof, and (b) with respect to which the Company has complied with clauses 2(a) and 2(b) of the prior paragraph to the extent applicable; and

 

(12) any transaction in which the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries, as the case may be, delivers to the trustee a letter from an accounting, appraisal or investment banking firm of national standing stating that such transaction is fair to the Company or such Restricted Subsidiary from a financial point of view or that such transaction meets the requirements of clause (1) of the preceding paragraph.

Business activities

The Company will not, and will not permit any of its Restricted Subsidiaries to, engage in any business other than the Oil and Gas Business, except to such extent as would not be material to the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries taken as a whole.

Additional note guarantees

If the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries acquires or creates another Domestic Subsidiary after the date of the indenture that incurs or guarantees (i) Indebtedness under any Credit Facility or (ii) any Indebtedness of the Company or any Guarantor in an aggregate amount in excess of $10.0 million, then, in either case, that Subsidiary will become a Guarantor by executing a supplemental indenture in substantially the form specified in the indenture and delivering an opinion of counsel to the trustee within 30 days after the date that Subsidiary incurred such Indebtedness.

Designation of restricted and unrestricted subsidiaries

The Board of Directors of the Company may designate any Restricted Subsidiary to be an Unrestricted Subsidiary if that designation would not cause a Default. If a Restricted Subsidiary is designated as an Unrestricted Subsidiary, the aggregate Fair Market Value of all outstanding Investments owned by the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries in the Subsidiary designated as Unrestricted will be deemed to be either (1) an Investment made as of the time of the designation that will reduce the amount available for Restricted Payments under the covenant described above under the caption “—Restricted Payments” or (2) a Permitted Investment under one or more clauses of the definition of Permitted Investments, as determined by the Company. That designation will only be permitted if the Investment would be permitted at that time and if the Restricted Subsidiary otherwise meets the definition of an Unrestricted Subsidiary.

Any designation of a Subsidiary of the Company as an Unrestricted Subsidiary will be evidenced to the trustee by filing with the trustee a certified copy of a resolution of the Board of Directors giving effect to such designation and an officers’ certificate certifying that such designation complied with the preceding conditions and was permitted by the covenant described above under the caption “—Restricted Payments.” If, at any time, any Unrestricted Subsidiary would fail to meet the preceding requirements as an Unrestricted Subsidiary, it will

 

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thereafter cease to be an Unrestricted Subsidiary for purposes of the indenture and any Indebtedness of such Subsidiary will be deemed to be incurred by a Restricted Subsidiary of the Company as of such date and, if such Indebtedness is not permitted to be incurred as of such date under the covenant described under the caption “—Incurrence of Indebtedness and Issuance of Preferred Stock,” the Company will be in default of such covenant.

The Board of Directors of the Company may at any time designate any Unrestricted Subsidiary to be a Restricted Subsidiary of the Company; provided that such designation will be deemed to be an incurrence of Indebtedness by a Restricted Subsidiary of the Company of any outstanding Indebtedness of such Unrestricted Subsidiary, and such designation will only be permitted if (1) such Indebtedness is permitted under the covenant described under the caption “—Incurrence of Indebtedness and Issuance of Preferred Stock,” calculated on a pro forma basis as if such designation had occurred at the beginning of the applicable reference period and (2) no Default or Event of Default would be in existence following such designation.

Payments for consent

The Company will not, and will not permit any of its Restricted Subsidiaries to, directly or indirectly, pay or cause to be paid any consideration to or for the benefit of any holder of notes for or as an inducement to any consent, waiver or amendment of any of the terms or provisions of the indenture or the notes unless such consideration is offered to be paid and is paid to all holders of the notes that consent, waive or agree to amend in the time frame set forth in the solicitation documents relating to such consent, waiver or agreement.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, with respect to any payment of consideration for, or as an inducement to, any consent, waiver or amendment of any of the terms or provisions of the indenture, the notes or the Note Guarantees in connection with an exchange offer, the Company and any of its Restricted Subsidiaries may exclude (i) holders or beneficial owners of the notes that are not “qualified institutional buyers” as defined in Rule 144A under the Securities Act, or “non-U.S. Persons” as defined in Regulation S under the Securities Act, and (ii) holders or beneficial owners of the notes in any jurisdiction (other than the United States) where the inclusion of such holders or beneficial owners would require the Company or any such Restricted Subsidiary to comply with the registration requirements or other similar requirements under any securities laws of such jurisdiction, or the solicitation of such consent, waiver or amendment from, or the granting of such consent or waiver, or the approval of such amendment by, holders or beneficial owners in such jurisdiction would be unlawful, in each case as determined by the Company in its sole discretion.

Reports

Whether or not required by the rules and regulations of the SEC, so long as any notes are outstanding, the Company will furnish to the holders of notes or cause the trustee to furnish to the holders of notes (or file with the SEC for public availability), within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and regulations:

 

(1) all quarterly and annual reports that would be required to be filed with the SEC on Forms 10-Q and 10-K if the Company were required to file such reports, including a “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and, with respect to the annual information only, a report thereon by the Company’s certified independent accountants; and

 

(2) all current reports that would be required to be filed with the SEC on Form 8-K if the Company were required to file such reports.

The availability of the foregoing reports on the SEC’s EDGAR filing system will be deemed to satisfy the foregoing delivery requirements.

All such reports will be prepared in all material respects in accordance with all of the rules and regulations applicable to such reports. The Company will at all times comply with Trust Indenture Act §314(a).

 

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If, at any time, the Company is no longer subject to the periodic reporting requirements of the Exchange Act for any reason, the Company will nevertheless continue filing the reports specified in the preceding paragraphs of this covenant with the SEC within the time periods specified above unless the SEC will not accept such a filing. The Company will not take any action for the purpose of causing the SEC not to accept any such filings. If, notwithstanding the foregoing, the SEC will not accept the Company’s filings for any reason, the Company will post the reports referred to in the preceding paragraphs on its website within the time periods that would apply if the Company were required to file those reports with the SEC.

If, at any time, the Company does not have a class of equity securities listed on a national securities exchange, the Company will schedule a conference call to be held reasonably promptly, but not more than ten business days following the release of each report containing the financial information referred to in clause (1) above to discuss the information contained in such report. The Company shall be permitted to combine this conference call with any other conference call for other debt or equity holders or lenders. The Company will take reasonable steps to notify holders of notes about such call and provide them and prospective investors in the notes with instructions to obtain access to such conference call concurrently with and in the same manner as each delivery of financial statements pursuant to clause (1) above.

For the avoidance of doubt, (a) any such reports or other information delivered pursuant to the foregoing will not be required to contain the separate financial information for Guarantors as contemplated by Rule 3-10 of Regulation S-X or any financial statements of unconsolidated subsidiaries or 50% or less owned persons as contemplated by Rule 3-09 of Regulation S-X or any schedules required by Regulation S-X, or in each case any successor provisions and (b) such information shall not be required to comply with Regulation G under the Exchange Act or Item 10(e) of Regulation S-K with respect to any non-GAAP financial measures contained therein.

If the Company has designated any of its Subsidiaries as Unrestricted Subsidiaries, then the quarterly and annual financial information required by the preceding paragraphs will include, to the extent material, a reasonably detailed presentation, either on the face of the financial statements or in the footnotes thereto, and in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” of the financial condition and results of operations of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries separate from the financial condition and results of operations of the Unrestricted Subsidiaries of the Company. No certifications or attestations concerning the financial statements or disclosure controls and procedures or internal controls that would otherwise be required pursuant to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 will be required, and nothing contained herein or in the indenture shall otherwise require the Company to comply with the terms of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 at any time when it would not otherwise be subject to such statute.

Any and all Defaults or Events of Default arising from a failure to furnish in a timely manner any report required by this covenant shall be deemed cured (and the Company shall be deemed to be in compliance with this covenant) upon filing or posting such report as contemplated by this covenant (but without regard to the date on which such report is so filed or posted); provided that such cure shall not otherwise affect the rights of the holders under “—Events of Defaults and Remedies” if the principal of, premium, if any, on, and interest on, the notes have been accelerated in accordance with the terms of the indenture and such acceleration has not been rescinded or cancelled prior to such cure.

In addition, the Company shall furnish to noteholders, prospective investors, broker-dealers and securities analysts, upon their request, any information required to be delivered pursuant to Rule 144A(d)(4) under the Securities Act so long as the notes are not freely transferable under the Securities Act.

Events of default and remedies

Each of the following is an “Event of Default”:

 

(1) default for 30 days in the payment when due of interest on the notes;

 

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(2) default in the payment when due (at Stated Maturity, upon redemption or otherwise) of the principal of, or premium, if any, on, the notes;

 

(3) failure by the Company to comply with the provisions described under the captions “—Repurchase at the Option of Holders—Change of Control,” “—Repurchase at the Option of Holders—Asset Sales,” “—Certain Covenants—Restricted Payments,” “—Certain Covenants—Incurrence of Indebtedness and Issuance of Preferred Stock” or “—Certain Covenants—Merger, Consolidation or Sale of Assets”;

 

(4) failure by the Company for 180 days after notice from the trustee or holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the notes then outstanding to comply with the provisions described under “—Certain Covenants—Reports”;

 

(5) failure by the Company for 60 days after notice to the Company by the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the notes then outstanding to comply with any of its other agreements in the indenture;

 

(6) default under any mortgage, indenture or instrument under which there may be issued or by which there may be secured or evidenced any Indebtedness for money borrowed by the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries (or the payment of which is Guaranteed by the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries), whether such Indebtedness or Guarantee now exists, or is created after the date of the indenture, if that default:

 

  (a) is caused by a failure to pay principal of, premium, if any, on, or interest, if any, on, such Indebtedness prior to the expiration of the grace period provided in such Indebtedness on the date of such default (a “Payment Default”); or

 

  (b) results in the acceleration of such Indebtedness prior to its Stated Maturity,

and, in each case, the principal amount of any such Indebtedness, together with the principal amount of any other such Indebtedness under which there has been a Payment Default or the maturity of which has been so accelerated, aggregates $35.0 million or more; provided, however, that if, prior to any acceleration of the notes, (i) any such Payment Default is cured or waived, (ii) any such acceleration is rescinded, or (iii) such Indebtedness is repaid during the 10 business day period commencing upon the end of any applicable grace period for such Payment Default or the occurrence of such acceleration, as the case may be, any Default or Event of Default (but not any acceleration of the notes) caused by such Payment Default or acceleration shall be automatically rescinded, so long as such rescission does not conflict with any judgment, decree or applicable law;

 

(7) failure by the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries to pay final judgments entered by a court or courts of competent jurisdiction aggregating in excess of $35.0 million (to the extent not covered by insurance by a reputable and creditworthy insurer as to which the insurer has not disclaimed coverage), which judgments are not paid, discharged or stayed, for a period of 60 days;

 

(8) except as permitted by the indenture, any Note Guarantee is held in any judicial proceeding to be unenforceable or invalid or ceases for any reason to be in full force and effect, or any Guarantor, or any Person acting on behalf of any Guarantor, denies or disaffirms its obligations under its Note Guarantee; and

 

(9) certain events of bankruptcy or insolvency described in the indenture with respect to the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries that is a Significant Subsidiary or any group of its Restricted Subsidiaries that, taken together, would constitute a Significant Subsidiary.

In the case of an Event of Default arising from certain events of bankruptcy or insolvency with respect to the Company, any Restricted Subsidiary of the Company that is a Significant Subsidiary or any group of Restricted Subsidiaries of the Company that, taken together, would constitute a Significant Subsidiary, all outstanding notes will become due and payable immediately without further action or notice. If any other Event of Default occurs and is continuing, the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding notes may declare all the notes to be due and payable immediately.

 

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The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding notes by written notice to the trustee may, on behalf of the holders of all of the notes, rescind an acceleration and its consequences under the indenture, if, among other things, (1) the rescission would not conflict with any judgment or decree of a court of competent jurisdiction and (2) all existing Events of Default, other than the nonpayment of the principal of, premium, if any, on, and interest on, the notes that has become due solely by such declaration of acceleration, have been cured or waived.

If a Default or Event of Default occurs and is continuing and is known to the trustee, the trustee must send to each holder notice of the Default or Event of Default within 90 days after it occurs. The trustee, however, may withhold from holders of the notes notice of any continuing Default or Event of Default if it determines that withholding notice is in their interest, except a Default or Event of Default relating to the payment of principal of, premium, if any, on or interest on, the notes.

Subject to the provisions of the indenture relating to the duties of the trustee in case an Event of Default occurs and is continuing, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers under the indenture at the request or direction of any holders of notes unless such holders have offered to the trustee indemnity or security reasonably satisfactory to it against any loss, liability or expense. Except to enforce the right to receive payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest when due, no holder of a note may pursue any remedy with respect to the indenture or the notes unless:

 

(1) such holder has previously given the trustee written notice that an Event of Default is continuing;

 

(2) holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding notes make a written request to the trustee to pursue the remedy;

 

(3) such holder or holders offer and, if requested, provide to the trustee security or indemnity reasonably satisfactory to the trustee against any loss, liability or expense;

 

(4) the trustee does not comply with such request within 60 days after receipt of the request and the offer, or provision if requested, of security or indemnity; and

 

(5) during such 60-day period, holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding notes do not give the trustee a direction inconsistent with such request.

The Company will be required to deliver to the trustee annually an officers’ certificate regarding compliance with the indenture. Upon any officer of the Company becoming aware of any Default or Event of Default, the Company will be required to deliver to the trustee a statement specifying such Default or Event of Default and what action the Company intends to take, if any, regarding such Default or Event of Default.

No personal liability of directors, officers, employees and stockholders

No director, officer, employee, incorporator or stockholder or other owner of any Capital Stock of the Company or any Guarantor, as such, will have any liability for any obligations of the Company or the Guarantors under the notes, the indenture or the Note Guarantees or for any claim based on, in respect of, or by reason of, such obligations or their creation. Each holder of notes by accepting a note waives and releases all such liability. The waiver and release are part of the consideration for issuance of the notes. The waiver may not be effective to waive liabilities under the federal securities laws.

Legal defeasance and covenant defeasance

The Company may at any time, at the option of its Board of Directors evidenced by a resolution set forth in an officers’ certificate, elect to have all of its obligations discharged with respect to the outstanding notes and all obligations of the Guarantors discharged with respect to their Note Guarantees (“Legal Defeasance”) except for:

 

(1) the rights of holders of outstanding notes to receive payments in respect of the principal of, premium, if any, on, or interest on, such notes when such payments are due from the trust referred to below;

 

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(2) the Company’s obligations with respect to the notes concerning issuing temporary notes, registration of notes, mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen notes and the maintenance of an office or agency for payment and money for security payments held in trust;

 

(3) the rights, powers, trusts, duties and immunities of the trustee under the indenture, and the Company’s and the Guarantors’ obligations in connection therewith; and

 

(4) the Legal Defeasance provisions of the indenture.

In addition, the Company may, at its option and at any time, elect to have the obligations of the Company and the Guarantors released with respect to certain covenants (including the Company’s obligation to make Change of Control Offers and Asset Sale Offers) that are described in the indenture (“Covenant Defeasance”) and thereafter any omission to comply with those covenants will not constitute a Default or Event of Default with respect to the notes. In the event Covenant Defeasance occurs, all Events of Default described under “—Events of Default and Remedies” (except those relating to payments on the notes or bankruptcy or insolvency events) will no longer constitute an Event of Default with respect to the notes.

In order to exercise either Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance:

 

(1) the Company must irrevocably deposit with the trustee, in trust, for the benefit of the holders of the notes, cash in U.S. dollars, non-callable Government Securities, or a combination thereof, in amounts as will be sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized investment bank, appraisal firm or firm of independent public accountants delivered to the trustee, to pay the principal of, premium, if any, on, and interest on, the outstanding notes on the stated date for payment thereof or on the applicable redemption date, as the case may be, and the Company must specify whether the notes are being defeased to such stated date for payment or to a particular redemption date;

 

(2) in the case of Legal Defeasance, the Company must deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel reasonably acceptable to the trustee confirming that (a) the Company received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling or (b) since the date of the indenture, there has been a change in the applicable U.S. federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion of counsel will confirm that, the beneficial owners of the outstanding notes will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of such Legal Defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such Legal Defeasance had not occurred;

 

(3) in the case of Covenant Defeasance, the Company must deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel reasonably acceptable to the trustee confirming that the beneficial owners of the outstanding notes will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of such Covenant Defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such Covenant Defeasance had not occurred;

 

(4) no Default or Event of Default has occurred and is continuing on the date of such deposit (other than a Default or Event of Default resulting from the borrowing of funds to be applied to such deposit (and any similar concurrent deposit relating to other Indebtedness), and the granting of Liens to secure such borrowings);

 

(5) such Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, any material agreement or instrument (other than the indenture and the agreements governing any other Indebtedness being defeased, discharged or replaced) to which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is a party or by which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is bound;

 

(6) the Company must deliver to the trustee an officers’ certificate stating that the deposit was not made by the Company with the intent of preferring the holders of notes over the other creditors of the Company with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding any creditors of the Company or others; and

 

(7) the Company must deliver to the trustee an officers’ certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent relating to the Legal Defeasance or the Covenant Defeasance have been complied with.

 

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Amendment, supplement and waiver

Except as provided in the next two succeeding paragraphs, the indenture, the notes or the Note Guarantees may be amended or supplemented with the consent of the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding notes (including additional notes, if any) voting as a single class (including consents obtained in connection with a tender offer or exchange offer for, or purchase of, the notes), and any existing Default or Event of Default (other than a Default or Event of Default in the payment of the principal of, premium, if any, on, or interest on, the notes, except a payment default resulting from an acceleration that has been rescinded) or compliance with any provision of the indenture, the notes or the Note Guarantees may be waived with the consent of the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding notes (including additional notes, if any) voting as a single class (including consents obtained in connection with a purchase of, or tender offer or exchange offer for, notes).

Without the consent of each holder of notes affected, an amendment, supplement or waiver may not (with respect to any notes held by a non-consenting holder):

 

(1) reduce the principal amount of notes whose holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver;

 

(2) reduce the principal of or change the fixed maturity of any note or alter or waive any of the provisions with respect to the redemption or repurchase of the notes (except provisions relating to minimum required notice of optional redemption or those provisions relating to the covenants described above under the caption “—Repurchase at the Option of Holders”);

 

(3) reduce the rate of or change the time for payment of interest, including Special Interest, on any note;

 

(4) waive a Default or Event of Default in the payment of principal of, premium, if any, on, or interest on, the notes (except a rescission of acceleration of the notes by the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding notes and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);

 

(5) make any note payable in money other than that stated in the notes;

 

(6) make any change in the provisions of the indenture relating to waivers of past Defaults or the rights of holders of notes to receive payments of principal of, premium, if any, on, or interest on, the notes (other than as permitted by clause (7) below);

 

(7) waive a redemption or repurchase payment with respect to any note (other than a payment required by one of the covenants described above under the caption “—Repurchase at the Option of Holders”);

 

(8) release any Guarantor from any of its obligations under its Note Guarantee or the indenture, except in accordance with the terms of the indenture; or

 

(9) make any change in the preceding amendment, supplement or waiver provisions.

Notwithstanding the preceding, without the consent of any holder of notes, the Company, the Guarantors and the trustee may amend or supplement the indenture, the notes or the Note Guarantees:

 

(1) to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency;

 

(2) to provide for uncertificated notes in addition to or in place of certificated notes;

 

(3) to provide for the assumption of the Company’s or a Guarantor’s obligations to holders of notes and Note Guarantees in the case of a merger or consolidation or disposition of all or substantially all of the Company’s or such Guarantor’s properties or assets, as applicable;

 

(4) to make any change that would provide any additional rights or benefits to the holders of notes or that does not adversely affect the legal rights under the indenture of any holder, including to comply with requirements of the SEC or DTC in order to maintain the transferability of the notes pursuant to Rule 144A under the Securities Act (“Rule 144A”) or Regulation S under the Securities Act (“Regulation S”);

 

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(5) to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act;

 

(6) to conform the text of the indenture, the notes or the Note Guarantees to any provision of this “Description of New Notes”;

 

(7) to provide for the issuance of additional notes in accordance with the limitations set forth in the indenture as of the date of the indenture;

 

(8) to secure the notes or the Note Guarantees pursuant to the requirements of the covenant described above under the subheading “—Certain Covenants—Liens”;

 

(9) to add any additional Guarantor or to evidence the release of any Guarantor from its Note Guarantee, in each case as provided in the indenture; or

 

(10) to evidence or provide for the acceptance of appointment under the indenture of a successor trustee.

The consent of the holders is not necessary under the indenture to approve the particular form of any proposed amendment, supplement or waiver. It is sufficient if such consent approves the substance of the proposed amendment, supplement or waiver. After an amendment, supplement or waiver under the indenture requiring the approval of the holders becomes effective, the Company will send to the holders a notice briefly describing the amendment, supplement or waiver. However, the failure to give such notice, or any defect in the notice, will not impair or affect the validity of the amendment, supplement or waiver.

Satisfaction and discharge

The indenture will be satisfied and discharged and will cease to be of further effect as to all notes issued thereunder (except as to surviving rights of registration of transfer or exchange of the notes and as otherwise specified in the indenture), when:

 

(1) either:

 

  (a) all notes that have been authenticated, except lost, stolen or destroyed notes that have been replaced or paid and notes for whose payment money has been deposited in trust and thereafter repaid to the Company, have been delivered to the trustee for cancellation; or

 

  (b) all notes that have not been delivered to the trustee for cancellation have become due and payable by reason of the giving of a notice of redemption or otherwise or will become due and payable within one year and the Company or any Guarantor has irrevocably deposited or caused to be deposited with the trustee as trust funds in trust solely for the benefit of the holders, cash in U.S. dollars, non-callable Government Securities, or a combination thereof, in such amounts as will be sufficient, without consideration of any reinvestment of interest, to pay and discharge the entire Indebtedness on the notes not delivered to the trustee for cancellation for principal of, premium, if any, on, or interest on, the notes to the date of Stated Maturity or redemption;

 

(2) in respect of clause 1(b), no Event of Default has occurred and is continuing on the date of the deposit (other than an Event of Default resulting from the borrowing of funds to be applied to such deposit and any similar deposit relating to other Indebtedness and, in each case, the granting of Liens to secure such borrowings) and the deposit will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, any other instrument to which the Company or any Guarantor is a party or by which the Company or any Guarantor is bound (other than with respect to the borrowing of funds to be applied concurrently to make the deposit required to effect such satisfaction and discharge and any similar concurrent deposit relating to other Indebtedness, and in each case the granting of Liens to secure such borrowings);

 

(3) the Company or any Guarantor has paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable by it under the indenture; and

 

(4) the Company has delivered irrevocable instructions to the trustee under the indenture to apply the deposited money toward the payment of the notes at Stated Maturity or on the redemption date, as the case may be.

 

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In addition, the Company must deliver an officers’ certificate and an opinion of counsel to the trustee stating that all conditions precedent to satisfaction and discharge have been satisfied.

Concerning the trustee

U.S. Bank National Association will be the trustee under the indenture.

If the trustee becomes a creditor of the Company or any Guarantor, the indenture will limit the right of the trustee to obtain payment of claims in certain cases, or to realize on certain property received in respect of any such claim as security or otherwise. The trustee will be permitted to engage in other transactions; however, if it acquires any conflicting interest (as defined in the Trust Indenture Act) after a Default has occurred and is continuing it must eliminate such conflict within 90 days, apply to the SEC for permission to continue as trustee (if the indenture has been qualified under the Trust Indenture Act) or resign.

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding notes will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for exercising any remedy available to the trustee or of exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee, subject to certain exceptions. In case an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing, the trustee will be required, in the exercise of its powers, to use the degree of care of a prudent man in the conduct of his own affairs. Subject to such provisions, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture at the request of any holder of notes, unless such holder has offered to the trustee indemnity or security reasonably satisfactory to it against any loss, liability or expense.

Governing law

The indenture, the notes and the Note Guarantees will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the laws of the State of New York.

Additional information

Any prospective investor in this offering who receives this prospectus may obtain a copy of the indenture and the registration rights agreement without charge by writing to 200 North Canal Street, Natchez, Mississippi, 39120, Attention: Chief Financial Officer.

Book-entry, delivery and form

The notes are being offered and sold to qualified institutional buyers in reliance on Rule 144A (“Rule 144A Notes”). The notes also may be offered and sold in offshore transactions in reliance on Regulation S (“Regulation S Notes”). Except as set forth below, the notes will be issued in registered, global form in minimum denominations of $2,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof. Notes will be issued at the closing of this offering only against payment in immediately available funds.

Rule 144A Notes initially will be represented by one or more notes in registered, global form without interest coupons (collectively, the “Rule 144A Global Notes”). Regulation S Notes initially will be represented by one or more notes in registered, global form without interest coupons (collectively, the “Regulation S Global Notes” and, together with the Rule 144A Global Notes, the “Global Notes”). The Global Notes will be deposited upon issuance with the trustee as custodian for The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”), and registered in the name of DTC or its nominee, in each case, for credit to an account of a direct or indirect participant in DTC as described below. Through and including the 40th day after the later of the commencement of this offering and the closing of this offering (such period through and including such 40th day, the “Restricted Period”), beneficial interests in the Regulation S Global Notes may be held only through the Euroclear system (“Euroclear”) and the Clearstream system (“Clearstream”) (as indirect participants in DTC), unless transferred to a person that takes delivery

 

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through a Rule 144A Global Note in accordance with the certification requirements described below. Beneficial interests in the Rule 144A Global Notes may not be exchanged for beneficial interests in the Regulation S Global Notes at any time except in the limited circumstances described below. See “—Exchanges Between Regulation S Notes and Rule 144A Notes.”

Except as set forth below, the Global Notes may be transferred, in whole and not in part, only to another nominee of DTC or to a successor of DTC or its nominee. Beneficial interests in the Global Notes may not be exchanged for definitive notes in registered certificated form (“Certificated Notes”) except in the limited circumstances described below. See “—Exchange of Global Notes for Certificated Notes.” Except in the limited circumstances described below, owners of beneficial interests in the Global Notes will not be entitled to receive physical delivery of notes in certificated form.

Rule 144A Notes (including beneficial interests in the Rule 144A Global Notes) will be subject to certain restrictions on transfer and will bear a restrictive legend as described under “Transfer Restrictions.” Regulation S Notes will also bear the legend as described under “Transfer Restrictions.” In addition, transfers of beneficial interests in the Global Notes will be subject to the applicable rules and procedures of DTC and its direct or indirect participants (including, if applicable, those of Euroclear and Clearstream), which may change from time to time.

Depository procedures

The following description of the operations and procedures of DTC, Euroclear and Clearstream are provided solely as a matter of convenience. These operations and procedures are solely within the control of the respective settlement systems and are subject to changes by them. The Company takes no responsibility for these operations and procedures and urges investors to contact the system or their participants directly to discuss these matters.

DTC has advised the Company that DTC is a limited-purpose trust company created to hold securities for its participating organizations (collectively, the “Participants”) and to facilitate the clearance and settlement of transactions in those securities between the Participants through electronic book-entry changes in accounts of its Participants. The Participants include securities brokers and dealers (including the initial purchasers), banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and certain other organizations. Access to DTC’s system is also available to other entities such as banks, brokers, dealers and trust companies that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a Participant, either directly or indirectly (collectively, the “Indirect Participants”). Persons who are not Participants may beneficially own securities held by or on behalf of DTC only through the Participants or the Indirect Participants. The ownership interests in, and transfers of ownership interests in, each security held by or on behalf of DTC are recorded on the records of the Participants and Indirect Participants.

DTC has also advised the Company that, pursuant to procedures established by it:

 

(1) upon deposit of the Global Notes, DTC will credit the accounts of the Participants designated by the initial purchasers with portions of the principal amount of the Global Notes; and

 

(2) ownership of these interests in the Global Notes will be shown on, and the transfer of ownership of these interests will be effected only through, records maintained by DTC (with respect to the Participants) or by the Participants and the Indirect Participants (with respect to other owners of beneficial interests in the Global Notes).

Investors in the Rule 144A Global Notes who are Participants may hold their interests therein directly through DTC. Investors in the Rule 144A Global Notes who are not Participants may hold their interests therein indirectly through organizations (including Euroclear and Clearstream) which are Participants. Investors in the Regulation S Global Notes must initially hold their interests therein through Euroclear or Clearstream, if they are participants in such systems, or indirectly through organizations that are participants. After the expiration of the Restricted Period (but not earlier), investors may also hold interests in the Regulation S Global Notes through

 

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Participants in the DTC system other than Euroclear and Clearstream. Euroclear and Clearstream will hold interests in the Regulation S Global Notes on behalf of their participants through customers’ securities accounts in their respective names on the books of their respective depositaries, which are Euroclear Bank S.A./ N.V., as operator of Euroclear, and Clearstream Banking, S.A., as operator of Clearstream. All interests in a Global Note, including those held through Euroclear or Clearstream, may be subject to the procedures and requirements of DTC. Those interests held through Euroclear or Clearstream may also be subject to the procedures and requirements of such systems. The laws of some jurisdictions may require that certain Persons take physical delivery in definitive form of securities that they own. Consequently, the ability to transfer beneficial interests in a Global Note to such Persons will be limited to that extent. Because DTC can act only on behalf of the Participants, which in turn act on behalf of the Indirect Participants, the ability of a Person having beneficial interests in a Global Note to pledge such interests to Persons that do not participate in the DTC system, or otherwise take actions in respect of such interests, may be affected by the lack of a physical certificate evidencing such interests.

Except as described below, owners of beneficial interests in the Global Notes will not have notes registered in their names, will not receive physical delivery of Certificated Notes and will not be considered the registered owners or “holders” thereof under the indenture for any purpose.

Payments in respect of the principal of, premium, if any, on, or interest on, a Global Note registered in the name of DTC or its nominee will be payable to DTC in its capacity as the registered holder under the indenture. Under the terms of the indenture, the Company, the Guarantors and the trustee will treat the Persons in whose names the notes, including the Global Notes, are registered as the owners of the notes for the purpose of receiving payments and for all other purposes. Consequently, none of the Company, the Guarantors, the trustee nor any agent of any of the foregoing has or will have any responsibility or liability for:

 

(1) any aspect of DTC’s records or any Participant’s or Indirect Participant’s records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in the Global Notes or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any of DTC’s records or any Participant’s or Indirect Participant’s records relating to the beneficial ownership interests in the Global Notes; or

 

(2) any other matter relating to the actions and practices of DTC or any of its Participants or Indirect Participants.

DTC has advised the Company that its current practice, at the due date of any payment in respect of securities such as the notes (including principal and interest), is to credit the accounts of the relevant Participants with the payment on the payment date unless DTC has reason to believe that it will not receive payment on such payment date. Each relevant Participant is credited with an amount proportionate to its beneficial ownership of an interest in the principal amount of the relevant security as shown on the records of DTC. Payments by the Participants and the Indirect Participants to the beneficial owners of notes will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices and will be the responsibility of the Participants or the Indirect Participants and will not be the responsibility of DTC, the trustee, the Company or the Guarantors. None of the Company, the Guarantors or the trustee will be liable for any delay by DTC or any of the Participants or the Indirect Participants in identifying the beneficial owners of the notes, and the Company, the Guarantors and the trustee may conclusively rely on and will be protected in relying on instructions from DTC or its nominee for all purposes.

Subject to the transfer restrictions set forth under “Transfer Restrictions,” transfers between the Participants will be effected in accordance with DTC’s procedures, and will be settled in same-day funds, and transfers between participants in Euroclear and Clearstream will be effected in accordance with their respective rules and operating procedures.

Subject to compliance with the transfer restrictions applicable to the notes described herein, cross- market transfers between the Participants, on the one hand, and Euroclear or Clearstream participants, on the other hand, will be effected through DTC in accordance with DTC’s rules on behalf of Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case

 

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may be, by their respective depositaries; however, such cross- market transactions will require delivery of instructions to Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, by the counterparty in such system in accordance with the rules and procedures and within the established deadlines (Brussels time) of such system. Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, will, if the transaction meets its settlement requirements, deliver instructions to its depositary to take action to effect final settlement on its behalf by delivering or receiving interests in the relevant Global Note in DTC, and making or receiving payment in accordance with normal procedures for same-day funds settlement applicable to DTC. Euroclear participants and Clearstream participants may not deliver instructions directly to the depositaries for Euroclear or Clearstream.

DTC has advised the Company that it will take any action permitted to be taken by a holder of notes only at the direction of one or more Participants to whose account DTC has credited the interests in the Global Notes and only in respect of such portion of the aggregate principal amount of the notes as to which such Participant or Participants has or have given such direction. However, if there is an Event of Default under the notes, DTC reserves the right to exchange the Global Notes for Certificated Notes, and to distribute such notes to its Participants.

Although DTC, Euroclear and Clearstream have agreed to the foregoing procedures to facilitate transfers of interests in the Rule 144A Global Notes and the Regulation S Global Notes among participants in DTC, Euroclear and Clearstream, they are under no obligation to perform or to continue to perform such procedures, and may discontinue such procedures at any time. None of the Company, the Guarantors, the trustee or any of their respective agents will have any responsibility for the performance by DTC, Euroclear or Clearstream or their respective participants or indirect participants of their respective obligations under the rules and procedures governing their operations.

Exchange of global notes for certificated notes

A Global Note is exchangeable for Certificated Notes in minimum denominations of $2,000 and in integral multiples of $1,000 in excess of $2,000, if:

 

(1) DTC (a) notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as depositary for the Global Notes or (b) has ceased to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act and, in either case, the Company fails to appoint a successor depositary within 90 days;

 

(2) the Company, at its option, but subject to DTC’s requirements, notifies the trustee in writing that it elects to cause the issuance of the Certificated Notes; or

 

(3) there has occurred and is continuing an Event of Default, and DTC notifies the trustee of its decision to exchange such Global Note for Certificated Notes.

In addition, beneficial interests in a Global Note may be exchanged for Certificated Notes upon prior written notice given to the trustee by or on behalf of DTC in accordance with the indenture. In all cases, Certificated Notes delivered in exchange for any Global Note or beneficial interests in Global Notes will be registered in the names, and issued in any approved denominations, requested by or on behalf of DTC (in accordance with its customary procedures) and will bear the applicable restrictive legend referred to in “Transfer Restrictions,” unless that legend is not required by the indenture.

Exchange of certificated notes for global notes

Certificated Notes may not be exchanged for beneficial interests in any Global Note unless the transferor first delivers to the trustee a written certificate (in the form provided in the indenture) to the effect that such transfer will comply with the appropriate transfer restrictions applicable to such notes. See “Transfer Restrictions.”

 

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Exchanges between regulation S Notes and rule 144A notes

Prior to the expiration of the Restricted Period, beneficial interests in the Regulation S Global Note may be exchanged for beneficial interests in the Rule 144A Global Note only if:

 

(1) such exchange occurs in connection with a transfer of the notes pursuant to Rule 144A; and

 

(2) the transferor first delivers to the trustee a written certificate (in the form provided in the indenture) to the effect that the notes are being transferred to a Person:

 

  (a) who the transferor reasonably believes to be a qualified institutional buyer within the meaning of Rule 144A;

 

  (b) purchasing for its own account or the account of a qualified institutional buyer in a transaction meeting the requirements of Rule 144A; and

 

  (c) in accordance with all applicable securities laws of the states of the United States and other jurisdictions.

Beneficial interests in a Rule 144A Global Note may be transferred to a Person who takes delivery in the form of an interest in the Regulation S Global Note, whether before or after the expiration of the Restricted Period, only if the transferor first delivers to the trustee a written certificate (in the form provided in the indenture) to the effect that such transfer is being made in accordance with Rule 904 of Regulation S or Rule 144 (if available) and that, if such transfer occurs prior to the expiration of the Restricted Period, the interest transferred will be held immediately thereafter through Euroclear or Clearstream.

Transfers involving exchanges of beneficial interests between the Regulation S Global Notes and the Rule 144A Global Notes will be effected by DTC by means of an instruction originated by the trustee through the DTC Deposit/Withdraw at Custodian system. Accordingly, in connection with any such transfer, appropriate adjustments will be made to reflect a decrease in the principal amount of the Regulation S Global Note and a corresponding increase in the principal amount of the Rule 144A Global Note or vice versa, as applicable. Any beneficial interest in one of the Global Notes that is transferred to a Person who takes delivery in the form of an interest in another Global Note will, upon transfer, cease to be an interest in such Global Note and will become an interest in another Global Note and, accordingly, will thereafter be subject to all transfer restrictions and other procedures applicable to beneficial interests in such other Global Note for so long as it remains such an interest.

Same day settlement and payment

The Company will make payments in respect of the notes represented by the Global Notes, including principal, premium, if any, and interest, by wire transfer of immediately available funds to the accounts specified by DTC or its nominee. The Company will make all payments of principal, premium, if any, and interest with respect to Certificated Notes in the manner described above under “—Methods of Receiving Payments on the Notes.” The notes represented by the Global Notes are expected to be eligible to trade in DTC’s Same-Day Funds Settlement System, and any permitted secondary market trading activity in such notes will, therefore, be required by DTC to be settled in immediately available funds. The Company expects that secondary trading in any Certificated Notes will also be settled in immediately available funds.

Because of time zone differences, the securities account of a Euroclear or Clearstream participant purchasing an interest in a Global Note from a Participant will be credited, and any such crediting will be reported to the relevant Euroclear or Clearstream participant, during the securities settlement processing day (which must be a business day for Euroclear and Clearstream) immediately following the settlement date of DTC. DTC has advised the Company that cash received in Euroclear or Clearstream as a result of sales of interests in a Global Note by or through a Euroclear or Clearstream participant to a Participant will be received with value on the settlement date of DTC but will be available in the relevant Euroclear or Clearstream cash account only as of the business day for Euroclear or Clearstream following DTC’s settlement date.

 

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Registration rights; special interest

The following description is a summary of the material provisions of the registration rights agreement. It does not restate that agreement in its entirety. We urge you to read the proposed form of registration rights agreement in its entirety because it, and not this description, defines your registration rights as holders of these notes. See “—Additional Information.”

The Company, the initial Guarantor and the initial purchasers will enter into the registration rights agreement on or prior to the closing of this offering. Pursuant to the registration rights agreement, the Company and the Guarantors will agree to file with the SEC the Exchange Offer Registration Statement (as defined in the registration rights agreement) on the appropriate form under the Securities Act with respect to the exchange notes. Upon the effectiveness of the Exchange Offer Registration Statement, the Company and the Guarantors will offer to the holders of Transfer Restricted Securities pursuant to the Exchange Offer (as defined in the registration rights agreement) who are able to make certain representations the opportunity to exchange their Transfer Restricted Securities for exchange notes.

If:

 

(1) the Company and the Guarantors are not

 

  (a) required to file the Exchange Offer Registration Statement; or

 

  (b) permitted to consummate the Exchange Offer because the Exchange Offer is not permitted by applicable law or SEC policy; or

 

(2) any holder of Transfer Restricted Securities notifies the Company prior to the 20th business day following consummation of the Exchange Offer that:

 

  (a) it is prohibited by law or SEC policy from participating in the Exchange Offer;

 

  (b) it may not resell the exchange notes acquired by it in the Exchange Offer to the public without delivering a prospectus and the prospectus contained in the Exchange Offer Registration Statement is not appropriate or available for such resales; or

 

  (c) it is a broker-dealer and owns notes acquired directly from the Company or an affiliate of the Company,

the Company and the Guarantors will file with the SEC a Shelf Registration Statement (as defined in the registration rights agreement) to cover resales of the notes by the holders of the notes who satisfy certain conditions relating to the provision of information in connection with the Shelf Registration Statement.

For purposes of the preceding, “Transfer Restricted Securities” means each note until the earliest to occur of:

 

(1) the date on which such note has been exchanged by a Person other than a broker-dealer for an exchange note in the Exchange Offer;

 

(2) following the exchange by a broker-dealer in the Exchange Offer of a note for an exchange note, the date on which such exchange note is sold to a purchaser who receives from such broker-dealer on or prior to the date of such sale a copy of the prospectus contained in the Exchange Offer Registration Statement;

 

(3) the date on which such note has been effectively registered under the Securities Act and disposed of in accordance with the Shelf Registration Statement; or

 

(4) the date on which such note is actually sold pursuant to Rule 144 under the Securities Act; provided that a note will not cease to be a Transfer Restricted Security for purposes of the Exchange Offer by virtue of this clause (4).

The registration rights agreement will provide that:

 

(1) the Company and the Guarantors will file an Exchange Offer Registration Statement with the SEC on or prior to 360 days after the closing of this offering;

 

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(2) the Company and the Guarantors will use all commercially reasonable efforts to have the Exchange Offer Registration Statement declared effective by the SEC on or prior to 425 days after the closing of this offering;

 

(3) unless the Exchange Offer would not be permitted by applicable law or SEC policy, the Company and the Guarantors will:

 

  (a) commence the Exchange Offer; and

 

  (b) use all commercially reasonable efforts to issue on or prior to 30 business days, or longer, if required by applicable securities laws, after the date on which the Exchange Offer Registration Statement was declared effective by the SEC, exchange notes in exchange for all notes tendered prior thereto in the Exchange Offer; and

 

(4) if obligated to file the Shelf Registration Statement, the Company and the Guarantors will use all commercially reasonable efforts to file the Shelf Registration Statement with the SEC on or prior to 30 days after such filing obligation arises and to cause the Shelf Registration to be declared effective by the SEC on or prior to 90 days after such obligation arises.

If:

 

(1) the Company and the Guarantors fail to file any of the registration statements required by the registration rights agreement on or before the date specified for such filing;

 

(2) any of such registration statements is not declared effective by the SEC on or prior to the date specified for such effectiveness (the “Effectiveness Target Date”);

 

(3) the Company and the Guarantors fail to consummate the Exchange Offer within 30 business days (or longer, if required by applicable securities law) of the Effectiveness Target Date with respect to the Exchange Offer Registration Statement; or

 

(4) the Shelf Registration Statement or the Exchange Offer Registration Statement is declared effective but thereafter ceases to be effective or usable in connection with resales of Transfer Restricted Securities during the periods specified in the registration rights agreement (each such event referred to in clauses (1) through (4) above, a “Registration Default”),

then the Company and the Guarantors will pay Special Interest to each holder of Transfer Restricted Securities until all Registration Defaults have been cured. The provision for Special Interest will be the only monetary remedy available to holders under the registration rights agreement.

With respect to the first 90-day period immediately following the occurrence of the first Registration Default, Special Interest will be paid in an amount equal to 0.25% per annum of the principal amount of Transfer Restricted Securities outstanding. The amount of the Special Interest will increase by an additional 0.25% per annum with respect to each subsequent 90-day period until all Registration Defaults have been cured, up to a maximum amount of Special Interest for all Registration Defaults of 1.0% per annum of the principal amount of the Transfer Restricted Securities outstanding.

All accrued Special Interest will be paid on the next scheduled interest payment date in the same manner as any other interest on the notes. See “—Methods of Receiving Payments on the Notes.”

Following the cure of all Registration Defaults, the accrual of Special Interest will cease.

Holders of notes will be required to make certain representations to the Company (as described in the registration rights agreement) in order to participate in the Exchange Offer and will be required to deliver certain information to be used in connection with any Shelf Registration Statement and to provide comments on the Shelf Registration Statement within the time periods set forth in the registration rights agreement in order to have their

 

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notes included in the Shelf Registration Statement and benefit from the provisions regarding Special Interest set forth above. By acquiring Transfer Restricted Securities, a holder will be deemed to have agreed to indemnify the Company and the Guarantors against certain losses arising out of information furnished by such holder in writing for inclusion in any Shelf Registration Statement. Holders of notes will also be required to suspend their use of the prospectus included in a Shelf Registration Statement under certain circumstances upon receipt of written notice to that effect from the Company.

Certain definitions

Set forth below are certain defined terms used in the indenture. Reference is made to the indenture for a full disclosure of all defined terms used therein, as well as any other capitalized terms used herein for which no definition is provided.

“Acquired Debt” means, with respect to any specified Person:

(1) Indebtedness of any other Person existing at the time such other Person is merged with or into or became a Subsidiary of such specified Person, whether or not such Indebtedness is incurred in connection with, or in contemplation of, such other Person merging with or into, or becoming a Restricted Subsidiary of, such specified Person; and

(2) Indebtedness secured by a Lien encumbering any asset acquired by such specified Person.

“Adjusted Consolidated Net Tangible Assets” means, as of any date of determination, without duplication:

(a) the sum of:

(i) the discounted future net revenues from Proved Reserves of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries calculated in accordance with SEC guidelines (before any state or federal income taxes) as estimated in a reserve report prepared as of the end of the Company’s most recently completed fiscal year, which reserve report is prepared or audited by independent petroleum engineers as to Proved Reserves accounting for at least 80% of all such discounted future net revenues and by the Company’s petroleum engineers with respect to any other Proved Reserves covered by such report, as increased by, as of the date of determination, the estimated discounted future net revenues from:

(A) estimated Proved Reserves of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries acquired since the date of such year-end reserve report, and

(B) estimated Proved Reserves of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries attributable to extensions, discoveries and other additions and upward revisions of estimates of Proved Reserves (including previously estimated development costs incurred during the period and the accretion of discount since the prior period end) since the date of such year-end reserve report due to exploration, development or exploitation, production or other activities which would, in accordance with standard industry practice, cause such revisions,

and decreased by, as of the date of determination, the discounted future net revenue attributable to:

(C) estimated Proved Reserves of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries reflected in such reserve report produced or disposed of since the date of such year-end reserve report, and

(D) reductions in estimated Proved Reserves of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries reflected in such reserve report attributable to downward revisions of estimates of Proved Reserves since such year-end due to changes in geological conditions or other factors which would, in accordance with standard industry practice, cause such revisions;

in the case of the preceding clauses (A) through (D), calculated on a pre-tax basis in accordance with SEC guidelines (utilizing the prices utilized in such year-end reserve report) and estimated by the Company’s petroleum engineers or any independent petroleum engineers engaged by the Company for such purpose;

 

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(ii) the capitalized costs that are attributable to oil and gas properties of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries to which no Proved Reserves are attributable, based on the Company’s books and records as of a date no earlier than the last day of the Company’s most recent quarterly or annual period for which internal financial statements are available;

(iii) the Consolidated Net Working Capital of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries as of a date no earlier than the last day of the Company’s most recent quarterly or annual period for which internal financial statements are available; and

(iv) the greater of:

(A) the net book value and

(B) the appraised value, as estimated by independent appraisers,

in each case, of other tangible assets (including Investments in unconsolidated Subsidiaries) of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries as of a date no earlier than the last day of the Company’s most recent quarterly or annual period for which internal financial statements are available; provided that if no such appraisal has been performed, the Company will not be required to obtain such an appraisal and only clause (iv)(A) of this definition will apply,

minus, to the extent not otherwise taken into account in the immediately preceding clause (a),

(b) the sum of

(i) minority interests;

(ii) any net gas balancing liabilities of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries as of the last day of the Company’s most recent annual or quarterly period for which internal financial statements are available;

(iii) to the extent included in clause (a)(i) above, the discounted future net revenues, calculated on a pre-tax basis in accordance with SEC guidelines (utilizing the prices utilized in the Company’s year-end reserve report), attributable to reserves that are required to be delivered to third parties to fully satisfy the obligations of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries with respect to Volumetric Production Payments on the schedules specified with respect thereto; and

(iv) the discounted future net revenues, calculated on a pre-tax basis in accordance with SEC guidelines, attributable to reserves subject to Dollar-Denominated Production Payments that, based on the estimates of production and price assumptions included in determining the discounted future net revenues specified in (a)(i) above, would be necessary to fully satisfy the payment obligations of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries with respect to Dollar-Denominated Production Payments on the schedules specified with respect thereto.

If the Company changes its method of accounting from the successful efforts method to the full costs method or a similar method of accounting, “Adjusted Consolidated Net Tangible Assets” will continue to be calculated as if the Company were still using the successful efforts method of accounting.

“Affiliate” of any specified Person means any other Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with such specified Person. For purposes of this definition, “control,” as used with respect to any Person, means the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of such Person, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by agreement or otherwise. For purposes of this definition, the terms “controlling,” “controlled by” and “under common control with” have correlative meanings.

“Applicable Premium” means, with respect to any note at the time of computation, the greater of:

 

(1) 1.0% of the principal amount of the note; or

 

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(2) the excess of:

 

  (a) the present value at such time of (i) the redemption price of the note at October 1, 2019 (such redemption price being set forth in the table appearing above under the caption “—Optional Redemption”) plus (ii) all required interest payments due on the note through October 1, 2019 (excluding accrued but unpaid interest to the redemption date), computed using a discount rate equal to the Treasury Rate as of such time plus 50 basis points discounted to the redemption date on a semi-annual basis (assuming a 360 day year consisting of twelve 30 day months); over

 

  (b) the principal amount of the note.

“Asset Sale” means:

 

(1) the sale, lease, conveyance or other disposition of any assets or rights by the Company or any of the Company’s Restricted Subsidiaries; provided that the sale, lease, conveyance or other disposition of all or substantially all of the properties or assets of the Company and its Subsidiaries taken as a whole will be governed by the provisions of the indenture described above under the caption “—Repurchase at the Option of Holders—Change of Control” or the provisions described above under the caption “—Certain Covenants—Merger, Consolidation or Sale of Assets” and not by the provisions of the Asset Sales covenant; and

 

(2) the issuance of Equity Interests by any of the Company’s Restricted Subsidiaries or the sale by the Company or any of the Company’s Restricted Subsidiaries of Equity Interests in any of the Company’s Subsidiaries.

Notwithstanding the preceding, none of the following items will be deemed to be an Asset Sale:

 

(1) any single transaction or series of related transactions that involves assets having a Fair Market Value of less than $10.0 million;

 

(2) a disposition of assets between or among the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries;

 

(3) an issuance of Equity Interests by a Restricted Subsidiary of the Company to the Company or to a Restricted Subsidiary of the Company;

 

(4) the sale, lease or other disposition of products, services or accounts receivable in the ordinary course of business and any sale or other disposition of damaged, worn-out or obsolete assets in the ordinary course of business (including the abandonment or other disposition of intellectual property) that is, in the reasonable judgment of the Company, no longer economically practicable to maintain or useful in the conduct of the business of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries taken as whole;

 

(5) licenses and sublicenses by the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries of software or intellectual property, including seismic data and interpretations thereof, in the ordinary course of business;

 

(6) any surrender or waiver of contract rights or settlement, release, recovery on or surrender of contract, tort or other claims in the ordinary course of business;

 

(7) the granting of Liens not prohibited by the covenant described above under the caption “—Liens” and dispositions in connection with Permitted Liens;

 

(8) the sale or other disposition of cash or Cash Equivalents or other financial instruments (other than Oil and Gas Hedging Contracts);

 

(9) a Restricted Payment that does not violate the covenant described above under the caption “—Certain Covenants—Restricted Payments” or a Permitted Investment;

 

(10) sale or other disposition of Hydrocarbons or other mineral products in the ordinary course of business;

 

(11) an Asset Swap;

 

(12) dispositions of crude oil and natural gas properties; provided that at the time of any such disposition such properties do not have associated with them any Proved Reserves; and

 

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(13) any Production Payments and Reserve Sales; provided that any such Production Payments and Reserve Sales, other than incentive compensation programs on terms that are reasonably customary in the Oil and Gas Business for geologists, geophysicists and other providers of technical services to the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary of the Company, shall have been created, incurred, issued, assumed or Guaranteed in connection with the financing of, and within 60 days after the acquisition of, the property that is subject thereto.

“Asset Sale Offer” has the meaning assigned to that term in the indenture.

“Asset Swap” means any substantially contemporaneous (and in any event occurring within 180 days of each other) purchase and sale or exchange of any assets or properties used or useful in the Oil and Gas Business between the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries and another Person; provided, that the Fair Market Value of the properties or assets traded or exchanged by the Company or such Restricted Subsidiary (together with any cash) is reasonably equivalent to the Fair Market Value of the properties or assets (together with any cash) to be received by the Company or such Restricted Subsidiary, and provided further that any net cash received must be applied in accordance with the provisions described above under the caption “—Repurchase at the Option of Holders—Asset Sales” if then in effect.

“Beneficial Owner” has the meaning assigned to such term in Rule 13d-3 and Rule 13d-5 under the Exchange Act, except that in calculating the beneficial ownership of any particular “person” (as that term is used in Section 13(d)(3) of the Exchange Act), such “person” will be deemed to have beneficial ownership of all securities that such “person” has the right to acquire by conversion or exercise of other securities, whether such right is currently exercisable or is exercisable only after the passage of time. The terms “Beneficially Owns” and “Beneficially Owned” have a corresponding meaning. For purposes of this definition, a Person shall be deemed not to Beneficially Own securities that are the subject of a stock purchase agreement, merger agreement, amalgamation agreement, arrangement agreement or similar agreement until consummation of the transactions or, as applicable, series of related transactions contemplated thereby.

“Board of Directors” means:

 

(1) with respect to a corporation, the board of directors of the corporation or any committee thereof duly authorized to act on behalf of such board;

 

(2) with respect to a partnership, the board of directors of the general partner of the partnership;

 

(3) with respect to a limited liability company, the managing member or members or any controlling committee of managing members thereof; and

 

(4) with respect to any other Person, the board or committee of such Person serving a similar function.

“Capital Lease Obligation” means, at the time any determination is to be made, the amount of the liability in respect of a capital lease that would at that time be required to be capitalized on a balance sheet prepared in accordance with GAAP, and the Stated Maturity thereof shall be the date of the last payment of rent or any other amount due under such lease prior to the first date upon which such lease may be prepaid by the lessee without payment of a penalty. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any lease (whether entered into before or after the date of the indenture) that would have been classified as an operating lease pursuant to GAAP as in effect on the date of the indenture will be deemed not to represent a Capital Lease Obligation.

“Capital Stock” means:

 

(1) in the case of a corporation, corporate stock;

 

(2) in the case of an association or business entity, any and all shares, interests, participations, rights or other equivalents (however designated) of corporate stock;

 

(3) in the case of a partnership or limited liability company, partnership interests (whether general or limited) or membership interests; and

 

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(4) any other interest or participation that confers on a Person the right to receive a share of the profits and losses of, or distributions of assets of, the issuing Person, but excluding from all of the foregoing any debt securities convertible into Capital Stock, whether or not such debt securities include any right of participation with Capital Stock.

“Cash Equivalents” means:

 

(1) United States dollars;

 

(2) Government Securities having maturities of not more than one year from the date of acquisition;

 

(3) certificates of deposit and eurodollar time deposits with maturities of one year or less from the date of acquisition, bankers’ acceptances with maturities not exceeding one year and overnight bank deposits, in each case, with any lender party to the Credit Agreement or with any domestic commercial bank or any branch or agency of a non-U.S. bank licensed to conduct business in the United States, in each case having combined capital and surplus of at least $100.0 million and a short term deposit rating no lower than A2 or P2 by S&P or Moody’s, respectively;

 

(4) repurchase obligations with a term of not more than seven days for underlying securities of the types described in clauses (2) and (3) above entered into with any financial institution meeting the qualifications specified in clause (3) above;

 

(5) commercial paper having one of the two highest ratings obtainable from Moody’s or S&P and, in each case, maturing within one year after the date of creation thereof; and

 

(6) money market funds at least 95% of the assets of which constitute Cash Equivalents of the kinds described in clauses (1) through (5) of this definition.

“Change of Control” means the occurrence of any of the following:

 

(1) the direct or indirect sale, lease, transfer, conveyance or other disposition (other than by way of merger or consolidation), in one or a series of related transactions, of all or substantially all of the properties or assets of the Company and its Subsidiaries taken as a whole to any Person (including any “person” (as that term is used in Section 13(d)(3) of the Exchange Act));

 

(2) the adoption of a plan relating to the liquidation or dissolution of the Company;

 

(3) the consummation of any transaction (including any merger or consolidation), the result of which is that any Person (including any “person” as defined above) becomes the Beneficial Owner, directly or indirectly, of more than 50% of the Voting Stock of the Company, measured by voting power rather than number of shares; or

 

(4) the merger or consolidation of the Company with or into another Person or the merger of another Person with or into the Company or the merger of any Person with or into a Subsidiary of the Company if Capital Stock of the Company is issued in connection therewith, unless holders of a majority of the aggregate voting power of the Voting Stock of the Company, immediately prior to such transaction, hold securities of the surviving or transferee Person that represent, immediately after such transaction, at least a majority of the aggregate voting power of the Voting Stock of the surviving Person.

“Change of Control Offer” has the meaning assigned to that term in the indenture.

“Code” means the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.

“Consolidated EBITDAX” means, with respect to any specified Person for any period, the Consolidated Net Income of such Person for such period plus, without duplication:

 

(1) provision for taxes based on income or profits (including state franchise taxes accounted for as income taxes in accordance with GAAP) of such Person and its Restricted Subsidiaries for such period, to the extent that such provision for taxes was deducted in computing such Consolidated Net Income; plus

 

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(2) the Fixed Charges of such Person and its Restricted Subsidiaries for such period, to the extent that such Fixed Charges were deducted in computing such Consolidated Net Income; plus

 

(3) depreciation, depletion, amortization (including amortization of intangibles but excluding amortization of prepaid cash expenses that were paid in a prior period), impairment and other non-cash charges and expenses (excluding any such non-cash charge or expense to the extent that it represents an accrual of or reserve for cash charges or expenses in any future period or amortization of a prepaid cash charge or expense that was paid in a prior period) of such Person and its Restricted Subsidiaries for such period to the extent that such depreciation, depletion, amortization, impairment and other non-cash charges or expenses were deducted in computing such Consolidated Net Income; plus

 

(4) if such Person accounts for its oil and natural gas operations using successful efforts or a similar method of accounting, consolidated exploration expense of such Person and its Restricted Subsidiaries; minus

 

(5) non-cash items increasing such Consolidated Net Income for such period, other than the accrual of revenue in the ordinary course of business; and minus

 

(6) to the extent increasing such Consolidated Net Income for such period, the sum of (a) the amount of deferred revenues that are amortized during such period and are attributable to reserves that are subject to Volumetric Production Payments and (b) amounts recorded in accordance with GAAP as repayments of principal and interest pursuant to Dollar-Denominated Production Payments,

in each case, on a consolidated basis and determined in accordance with GAAP.

“Consolidated Indebtedness” means, as of the date of determination, the aggregate principal amount of all Indebtedness (other than Hedging Obligations) of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries, on a consolidated basis, less the amount of unrestricted cash and unrestricted Cash Equivalents then held by the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries.

“Consolidated Liquidity” means, as of the date of determination, the aggregate amount of (i) unused commitments available for borrowing by the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries under the Credit Facilities, and (ii) unrestricted cash and unrestricted Cash Equivalents then held by the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries.

“Consolidated Net Income” means, with respect to any specified Person for any period, the aggregate of the net income (loss) of such Person and its Restricted Subsidiaries for such period, on a consolidated basis, determined in accordance with GAAP and without any reduction in respect of Preferred Stock dividends or distributions; provided that:

 

(1) all extraordinary gains or losses and all gains or losses realized in connection with any Asset Sale or the disposition of securities or the early extinguishment of Indebtedness, together with any related provision for taxes on any such gain or loss, will be excluded;

 

(2) the net income (but not loss) of any Person that is not a Restricted Subsidiary or that is accounted for by the equity method of accounting will be included only to the extent of the amount of dividends or similar distributions paid in cash to the specified Person or a Restricted Subsidiary of the Person;

 

(3) the net income (but not loss) of any Restricted Subsidiary will be excluded to the extent that the declaration or payment of dividends or similar distributions by that Restricted Subsidiary of that net income is not at the date of determination permitted without any prior governmental approval (that has not been obtained) or, directly or indirectly, by operation of the terms of its charter or any judgment, decree, order, statute, rule or governmental regulation applicable to that Restricted Subsidiary or its stockholders, partners or members;

 

(4) the cumulative effect of a change in accounting principles will be excluded;

 

(5) unrealized losses and gains under derivative instruments included in the determination of Consolidated Net Income, including those resulting from the application of FASB ASC 815, will be excluded; and

 

(6) any asset impairment writedowns on Oil and Gas Properties under GAAP or SEC guidelines will be excluded.

 

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“Consolidated Net Working Capital” of any Person as of any date of determination means the amount (shown on the balance sheet of such Person and its Restricted Subsidiaries prepared on a consolidated basis in accordance with GAAP as of the end of the most recent fiscal quarter of such Person for which internal financial statements are available) by which (a) all current assets of such Person and its Restricted Subsidiaries other than current assets from Oil and Gas Hedging Contracts, exceeds (b) all current liabilities of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries, other than (i) current liabilities included in Indebtedness, (ii) current liabilities associated with asset retirement obligations relating to oil and gas properties and (iii) any current liabilities from Oil and Natural Gas Hedging Contracts, in each case as set forth in the consolidated financial statements of the Company prepared in accordance with GAAP (excluding any adjustments made pursuant to FASB ASC 815).

“continuing” means, with respect to any Default or Event of Default, that such Default or Event of Default has not been cured or waived.

“Credit Agreement” means that certain Fifth Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, dated as of March 11, 2014, as amended, including by the fourth amendment dated as of September 9, 2016, by and among Callon Petroleum Company, JPMorgan Chase Bank, National Association, as administrative agent, and the lenders party thereto, including any related notes, Guarantees, collateral documents, instruments and agreements executed in connection therewith, and, in each case, as amended, restated, modified, renewed, refunded, replaced in any manner (whether upon or after termination or otherwise) or refinanced (including by means of sales of debt securities to institutional investors) in whole or in part from time to time.

“Credit Facilities” means, one or more debt facilities (including the Credit Agreement) or other credit agreements, indentures, commercial paper facilities or other forms of debt financing, in each case, with banks or other institutional lenders, accredited investors or institutional investors providing for revolving credit loans, term loans, term debt, debt securities, capital market financings, private placements, receivables financing (including through the sale of receivables to such lenders or to special purpose entities formed to borrow from such lenders against such receivables) or letters of credit, in each case, as amended, restated, modified, renewed, extended, increased, refunded, replaced in any manner (whether upon or after termination or otherwise) or refinanced (including by means of sales of debt securities to institutional investors) in whole or in part from time to time.

“Customary Recourse Exceptions” means, with respect to any Non-Recourse Debt of an Unrestricted Subsidiary, exclusions from the exculpation provisions with respect to such Non-Recourse Debt for the voluntary bankruptcy of such Unrestricted Subsidiary, fraud, misapplication of cash, environmental claims, waste, willful destruction and other circumstances customarily excluded by lenders from exculpation provisions or included in separate indemnification agreements in non-recourse financings.

“Default” means any event that is, or with the passage of time or the giving of notice or both would be, an Event of Default.

“Designated Non-cash Consideration” means the Fair Market Value of non-cash consideration received by the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary in connection with an Asset Sale that is so designated as Designated Non-cash Consideration pursuant to an officers’ certificate, setting forth the basis of such valuation and executed by the chief financial officer and one other officer of the Company, less the amount of cash or Cash Equivalents received in connection with a subsequent sale of or collection on such Designated Non-cash Consideration.

“Disqualified Stock” means any Capital Stock that, by its terms (or by the terms of any security into which it is convertible, or for which it is exchangeable, in each case, at the option of the holder of the Capital Stock), or upon the happening of any event, matures or is mandatorily redeemable, pursuant to a sinking fund obligation or otherwise, or redeemable at the option of the holder of the Capital Stock, in whole or in part, on or prior to the date that is 91 days after the date on which the notes mature. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, any Capital Stock that would constitute Disqualified Stock solely because the holders of the Capital Stock have the

 

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right to require the Company to repurchase or redeem such Capital Stock upon the occurrence of a change of control or an asset sale will not constitute Disqualified Stock if the terms of such Capital Stock provide that the Company may not repurchase or redeem any such Capital Stock pursuant to such provisions unless such repurchase or redemption complies with the covenant described above under the caption “—Certain Covenants—Restricted Payments.” The amount of Disqualified Stock deemed to be outstanding at any time for purposes of the indenture will be the maximum amount that the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries may become obligated to pay upon the maturity of, or pursuant to any mandatory redemption provisions of, such Disqualified Stock, exclusive of accrued dividends.

“Dollar-Denominated Production Payments” means production payment obligations recorded as liabilities in accordance with GAAP, together with all undertakings and obligations in connection therewith.

“Domestic Subsidiary” means any Restricted Subsidiary of the Company that was formed under the laws of the United States or any state of the United States or the District of Columbia or that Guarantees or otherwise provides direct credit support for any Indebtedness of the Company.

“Equity Interests” of any Person means (1) any and all Capital Stock of such Person and (2) all rights to purchase, warrants or options (whether or not currently exercisable), participations or other equivalents of or interests in (however designated) such Capital Stock of such Person, but excluding from all of the foregoing any debt securities convertible into Equity Interests, regardless of whether such debt securities include any right of participation with Equity Interests.

“Equity Offering” means a public or private sale of Equity Interests of the Company (other than Disqualified Stock and other than to a Subsidiary of the Company) made for cash on a primary basis to the Company.

“Existing Indebtedness” means all Indebtedness of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries (other than Indebtedness under the Credit Agreement) in existence on the date of the indenture, until such amounts are repaid.

“Fair Market Value” means the value that would be paid by a willing buyer to an unaffiliated willing seller in a transaction not involving distress or necessity of either party, determined in good faith by the Board of Directors of the Company in the case of amounts of $20.0 million or more and otherwise by an officer of the Company (unless otherwise provided in the indenture).

“FASB ASC 815” means Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting Standards Codification Topic No. 815, Derivatives and Hedging.

“Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio” means with respect to any specified Person for any period, the ratio of the Consolidated EBITDAX of such Person for such period to the Fixed Charges of such Person for such period. In the event that the specified Person or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries incurs, assumes, Guarantees, repays, repurchases, redeems, defeases or otherwise discharges any Indebtedness (other than ordinary working capital borrowings) or issues, repurchases or redeems Preferred Stock subsequent to the commencement of the period for which the Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio is being calculated and on or prior to the date on which the event for which the calculation of the Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio is made (the “Calculation Date”), then the Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio will be calculated giving pro forma effect to such incurrence, assumption, Guarantee, repayment, repurchase, redemption, defeasance or other discharge of Indebtedness, or such issuance, repurchase or redemption of Preferred Stock, and the use of the proceeds therefrom, as if the same had occurred at the beginning of the applicable four-quarter reference period. For purposes of this definition, whenever pro forma effect is to be given to any calculation under this definition, the pro forma calculations will be determined in good faith by the chief financial or accounting officer of the specified Person; provided that such officer may in his or her discretion include any reasonably identifiable and factually supportable pro forma changes to Consolidated EBITDAX, including any pro forma expenses and cost reductions, that have occurred or in the

 

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judgment of such officer are reasonably expected to occur within 12 months of the date of the applicable transaction (regardless of whether such expense or cost reduction or any other operating improvements could then be reflected properly in pro forma financial statements prepared in accordance with Regulation S-X under the Securities Act or any other regulation or policy of the SEC) and that are set forth in an officers’ certificate signed by the chief financial or accounting officer that states (a) the amount of each such adjustment and (b) that such adjustments are based on the reasonable good faith belief of the officers executing such officers’ certificate at the time of such execution and the factual basis on which such good faith belief is based.

In addition, for purposes of calculating the Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio:

 

(1) acquisitions that have been made by the specified Person or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries, including through mergers or consolidations, or by any Person or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries acquired by the specified Person or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries, and including all related financing transactions and including increases in ownership of Restricted Subsidiaries, during the four-quarter reference period or subsequent to such reference period and on or prior to the Calculation Date, or that are to be made on the Calculation Date, will be given pro forma effect (in accordance with Regulation S-X under the Securities Act) as if they had occurred on the first day of the four-quarter reference period;

 

(2) the Consolidated EBITDAX attributable to discontinued operations, as determined in accordance with GAAP, and operations or businesses (and ownership interests therein) disposed of prior to the Calculation Date, will be excluded;

 

(3) the Fixed Charges attributable to discontinued operations, as determined in accordance with GAAP, and operations or businesses (and ownership interests therein) disposed of prior to the Calculation Date, will be excluded, but only to the extent that the obligations giving rise to such Fixed Charges will not be obligations of the specified Person or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries following the Calculation Date;

 

(4) any Person that is a Restricted Subsidiary on the Calculation Date will be deemed to have been a Restricted Subsidiary at all times during such four-quarter period;

 

(5) any Person that is not a Restricted Subsidiary on the Calculation Date will be deemed not to have been a Restricted Subsidiary at any time during such four-quarter period; and

 

(6) if any Indebtedness bears a floating rate of interest, the interest expense on such Indebtedness will be calculated as if the rate in effect on the Calculation Date had been the applicable rate for the entire period (taking into account any Hedging Obligation applicable to such Indebtedness if such Hedging Obligation has a remaining term as at the Calculation Date in excess of 12 months).

“Fixed Charges” means, with respect to any specified Person for any period, the sum, without duplication, of:

 

(1) the consolidated interest expense of such Person and its Restricted Subsidiaries for such period, whether paid or accrued (excluding (i) any interest attributable to Dollar-Denominated Production Payments, (ii) write-off of deferred financing costs and (iii) accretion of interest charges on future plugging and abandonment obligations, future retirement benefits and other obligations that do not constitute Indebtedness, but including amortization of debt issuance costs and original issue discount, non-cash interest payments, the interest component of all payments associated with Capital Lease Obligations, commissions, discounts and other fees and charges incurred in respect of letter of credit or bankers’ acceptance financings), and net of the effect of all payments made or received pursuant to Hedging Obligations in respect of interest rates; plus

 

(2) the consolidated interest expense of such Person and its Restricted Subsidiaries that was capitalized during such period; plus

 

(3) any interest on Indebtedness of another Person that is Guaranteed by such Person or one of its Restricted Subsidiaries or secured by a Lien on assets of such Person or one of its Restricted Subsidiaries, whether or not such Guarantee or Lien is called upon; plus

 

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(4) all dividends or distributions, whether paid or accrued and whether or not in cash, on any series of Disqualified Stock of such Person or any series of Preferred Stock of its Restricted Subsidiaries, other than dividends or distributions on Equity Interests payable solely in Equity Interests of such Person (other than Disqualified Stock) or to such Person or a Restricted Subsidiary of such Person.

“GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, which are in effect from time to time.

“Government Securities” means obligations issued or directly and fully guaranteed or insured by the United States government or any agency or instrumentality of the United States government (provided that the full faith and credit of the United States is pledged in support thereof).

“Guarantee” means a guarantee other than by endorsement of negotiable instruments for collection in the ordinary course of business, direct or indirect, in any manner including by way of a pledge of assets or through letters of credit or reimbursement agreements in respect thereof, of all or any part of any Indebtedness (whether arising by virtue of partnership arrangements, or by agreements to keep-well, to purchase assets, goods, securities or services, to take or pay or to maintain financial statement conditions or otherwise). When used as a verb, “Guarantee” has a correlative meaning.

“Guarantors” means any Subsidiary of the Company that Guarantees the notes in accordance with the provisions of the indenture, and their respective successors and assigns, in each case, until the Note Guarantee of such Person has been released in accordance with the provisions of the indenture.

“Hedging Obligations” means, with respect to any specified Person, the obligations of such Person under:

 

(1) interest rate swap agreements (whether from fixed to floating or from floating to fixed), interest rate cap agreements and interest rate collar agreements;

 

(2) other agreements or arrangements designed to manage interest rates or interest rate risk; and

 

(3) Oil and Gas Hedging Contracts.

“Hydrocarbons” means oil, natural gas, casing head gas, drip gasoline, natural gasoline, condensate, distillate, liquid hydrocarbons, gaseous hydrocarbons and all constituents, elements or compounds thereof and products refined or processed therefrom.

“Indebtedness” means, with respect to any specified Person, any indebtedness of such Person (excluding accrued expenses and trade payables), whether or not contingent:

 

(1) in respect of borrowed money;

 

(2) evidenced by or issued in exchange for bonds, notes, debentures or similar instruments or letters of credit (or reimbursement agreements in respect thereof);

 

(3) in respect of bankers’ acceptances;

 

(4) representing Capital Lease Obligations;

 

(5) representing the balance deferred and unpaid of the purchase price of any property or services due more than six months after such property is acquired or such services are completed; or

 

(6) representing any Hedging Obligations,

if and to the extent any of the preceding items (other than letters of credit and Hedging Obligations) would appear as a liability upon a balance sheet of the specified Person prepared in accordance with GAAP. In addition, the term “Indebtedness” includes all Indebtedness of others secured by a Lien on any asset of the specified Person (whether or not such Indebtedness is assumed by the specified Person) and, to the extent not otherwise

 

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included, the Guarantee by the specified Person of any Indebtedness of any other Person (including, with respect to any Production Payment, any warranties or guarantees of production or payment by such Person with respect to such Production Payment, but excluding other contractual obligations of such Person with respect to such Production Payment). Subject to the preceding sentence, neither Dollar-Denominated Production Payments nor Volumetric Production Payments shall be deemed to be Indebtedness.

In addition, “Indebtedness” of any Person shall include Indebtedness described in the preceding paragraph that would not appear as a liability on the balance sheet of such Person if:

 

(1) such Indebtedness is the obligation of a partnership or joint venture that is not a Restricted Subsidiary (a “Joint Venture”);

 

(2) such Person or a Restricted Subsidiary of such Person is a general partner of the Joint Venture (a “Joint Venture General Partner”); and

 

(3) there is recourse, by contract or operation of law, with respect to the payment of such Indebtedness to property or assets of such Person or a Restricted Subsidiary of such Person; and then such Indebtedness shall be included in an amount not to exceed:

 

  (a) the lesser of (i) the net assets of the Joint Venture General Partner and (ii) the amount of such obligations to the extent that there is recourse, by contract or operation of law, to the property or assets of such Person or a Restricted Subsidiary of such Person; or

 

  (b) if less than the amount determined pursuant to clause (a) immediately above, the actual amount of such Indebtedness that is recourse to such Person or a Restricted Subsidiary of such Person, if the Indebtedness is evidenced by a writing and is for a determinable amount and the related interest expense shall be included in Fixed Charges to the extent actually paid by such Person or its Restricted Subsidiaries.

Notwithstanding the preceding, “Indebtedness” of a Person shall not include:

 

(1) any indebtedness that has been defeased in accordance with GAAP or defeased pursuant to the deposit of cash or Cash Equivalents (in an amount sufficient to satisfy all such indebtedness obligations at maturity or redemption, as applicable, and all payments of interest and premium, if any) in a trust or account created or pledged for the sole benefit of the holders of such indebtedness, and subject to no other Liens;

 

(2) any obligation of such Person in respect of a farm-in agreement or similar arrangement whereby such Person agrees to pay all or a share of the drilling, completion or other expenses of an exploratory or development well (which agreement may be subject to a maximum payment obligation, after which expenses are shared in accordance with the working or participation interest therein or in accordance with the agreement of the parties) or perform the drilling, completion or other operation on such well in exchange for an ownership interest in an oil or gas property; and

 

(3) any repayment or reimbursement obligation of such Person or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries with respect to Customary Recourse Exceptions, unless and until an event or circumstance occurs that triggers the Person’s or such Restricted Subsidiary’s direct repayment or reimbursement obligation (as opposed to contingent or performance obligations) to the lender or other Person to whom such obligation is actually owed, in which case the amount of such direct payment or reimbursement obligation shall constitute Indebtedness.

“Investments” means, with respect to any Person, all direct or indirect investments by such Person in other Persons (including Affiliates) in the forms of loans (including Guarantees or other obligations), advances or capital contributions (excluding commission, travel and similar advances to officers and employees made in the ordinary course of business), purchases or other acquisitions for consideration of Indebtedness, Equity Interests or other securities (excluding any interest in an oil or natural gas leasehold to the extent constituting a security under applicable law), together with all items that are or would be classified as investments on a balance sheet

 

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prepared in accordance with GAAP. If the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary of the Company sells or otherwise disposes of any Equity Interests of any direct or indirect Restricted Subsidiary of the Company such that, after giving effect to any such sale or disposition, such Person is no longer a Restricted Subsidiary of the Company, the Company will be deemed to have made an Investment on the date of any such sale or disposition equal to the Fair Market Value of the Company’s Investments in such Subsidiary that were not sold or disposed of in an amount determined as provided in the final paragraph of the covenant described above under the caption “—Certain Covenants—Restricted Payments.” The acquisition by the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary of the Company of a Person that holds an Investment in a third Person will be deemed to be an Investment by the Company or such Restricted Subsidiary in such third Person in an amount equal to the Fair Market Value of the Investments held by the acquired Person in such third Person in an amount determined as provided in the final paragraph of the covenant described above under the caption “—Certain Covenants—Restricted Payments.” Except as otherwise provided in the indenture, the amount of an Investment will be determined at the time the Investment is made and without giving effect to subsequent changes in value.

“Leverage Ratio” means, as of any date of determination, the ratio of (1) Consolidated Indebtedness of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries to (2) the Company’s Consolidated EBITDAX for the most recently ended four-quarter period immediately preceding the date on which such event for which such calculation is being made shall occur, in each case with such pro forma adjustments to Consolidated Indebtedness and Consolidated EBITDAX as are appropriate and consistent with the pro forma adjustment provisions set forth in the definition of Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio.

“Lien” means, with respect to any asset, any mortgage, lien, pledge, charge, security interest or encumbrance of any kind in respect of such asset, whether or not filed, recorded or otherwise perfected under applicable law, including any conditional sale or other title retention agreement, any lease in the nature thereof, any option or other agreement to sell or give a security interest in and any filing of or agreement to give any financing statement under the Uniform Commercial Code (or equivalent statutes) of any jurisdiction.

“Moody’s” means Moody’s Investors Service, Inc., and any successor to the ratings business thereof.

“Net Proceeds” means the aggregate amount of cash proceeds and Cash Equivalents received by the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries in respect of any Asset Sale (including any cash or Cash Equivalents received upon the sale or other disposition of any non-cash consideration received in any Asset Sale but excluding any non-cash consideration deemed to be cash for purposes of the “Asset Sales” provisions of the indenture), net of the direct costs relating to such Asset Sale, including legal, accounting and investment banking fees, and sales commissions, and any relocation expenses incurred as a result of the Asset Sale, taxes paid or payable as a result of the Asset Sale, in each case, after taking into account any available tax credits or deductions and any tax sharing arrangements, and amounts required to be applied to the repayment of Indebtedness, other than revolving credit Indebtedness under a Credit Facility, secured by a Lien on the asset or assets that were the subject of such Asset Sale and any reserve for adjustment or indemnification obligations in respect of the sale price of such asset or assets established in accordance with GAAP.

“Non-Recourse Debt” means Indebtedness:

 

(1) as to which neither the Company nor any of its Restricted Subsidiaries (a) provides credit support of any kind (including any undertaking, agreement or instrument that would constitute Indebtedness) or (b) is directly or indirectly liable as a guarantor or otherwise, except for Customary Recourse Exceptions; and

 

(2) as to which the lenders have been notified in writing that they will not have any recourse to the Capital Stock or assets of the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries (other than the Equity Interests of an Unrestricted Subsidiary), except for Customary Recourse Exceptions.

“Note Guarantee” means the Guarantee by each Guarantor of the Company’s Obligations under the indenture and the notes, as provided in the indenture.

 

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“Obligations” means any principal, interest, penalties, fees, indemnifications, reimbursements, damages and other liabilities payable under the documentation governing any Indebtedness.

“Oil and Gas Business” means (i) the acquisition, exploration, development, production, operation and disposition of interests in oil, gas and other Hydrocarbon properties, (ii) the gathering, marketing, treating, processing (but not refining), storage, selling and transporting of any production from such interests or properties, (iii) any business relating to exploration for or development, production, treatment, processing (but not refining), storage, transportation or marketing of oil, gas and other minerals and products produced in association therewith and (iv) any activity that is ancillary to or necessary or appropriate for the activities described in clauses (i) through (iii) of this definition.

“Oil and Gas Hedging Contracts” means any puts, cap transactions, floor transactions, collar transactions, forward contract, commodity swap agreement, commodity option agreement or other similar agreement or arrangement in respect of Hydrocarbons to be used, produced, processed or sold by the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries that are customary in the Oil and Gas Business and designed to protect such Person against fluctuation in Hydrocarbons prices and not for speculative purposes.

“Oil and Gas Properties” means all properties, including equity or other ownership interest therein, owned by such Person or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries which contain or are believed to contain Proved Reserves.

“Permitted Acquisition Indebtedness” means Indebtedness or Disqualified Stock of the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries to the extent such Indebtedness or Disqualified Stock was Indebtedness or Disqualified Stock of any other Person existing at the time (a) such Person became a Restricted Subsidiary of the Company or (b) such Person was merged or consolidated with or into the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries; provided that on the date such Person became a Restricted Subsidiary or the date such Person was merged or consolidated with or into the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries, as applicable, either

 

(1) immediately after giving effect to such transaction and any related financing transaction on a pro forma basis as if the same had occurred at the beginning of the applicable four-quarter period, the Company or such Person (if the Company is not the survivor in the transaction) would be permitted to incur at least $1.00 of additional Indebtedness pursuant to the Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio test set forth in the first paragraph of the covenant described above under the caption “—Certain Covenants—Incurrence of Indebtedness and Issuance of Preferred Stock,” or

 

(2) immediately after giving effect to such transaction and any related financing transaction on a pro forma basis as if the same had occurred at the beginning of the applicable four-quarter period, the Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio of the Company or such Person (if the Company is not the survivor in the transaction) is equal to or greater than the Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio of the Company immediately prior to such transaction.

“Permitted Business Investments” means investments made in the ordinary course of, and of a nature that is or shall have become customary in, the Oil and Gas Business as a means of actively exploiting, exploring for, acquiring, developing, processing, gathering, marketing or transporting oil and gas through agreements, transactions, interests or arrangements which permit one to share risks or costs, comply with regulatory requirements regarding local ownership or satisfy other objectives customarily achieved through the conduct of Oil and Gas Business jointly with third parties, including (i) ownership interests in oil, natural gas, other Hydrocarbon properties or any interest therein or gathering, transportation, processing, storage or related systems, (ii) Investments in the form of or pursuant to operating agreements, processing agreements, farm-in agreements, farm-out agreements, developments agreements, area of mutual interest agreements, unitization agreements, pooling agreements, joint bidding agreements, service contracts, joint venture agreements, partnership agreements (whether general or limited), subscription agreements, stock purchase agreements and other similar agreements (including for limited liability companies) with third parties, and (iii) direct or indirect ownership interests or Investments in drilling rigs, fracturing units and other related equipment or in Persons that own or provide such equipment.

 

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“Permitted Investments” means:

 

(1) any Investment in the Company or in a Restricted Subsidiary of the Company;

 

(2) any Investment in Cash Equivalents;

 

(3) any Investment by the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary of the Company in a Person, if as a result of such Investment:

 

  (a) such Person becomes a Restricted Subsidiary of the Company; or

 

  (b) such Person is merged, consolidated or amalgamated with or into, or transfers or conveys substantially all of its properties or assets to, or is liquidated into, the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary of the Company;

 

(4) any Investment made as a result of the receipt of non-cash consideration from an Asset Sale that was made pursuant to and in compliance with the covenant described above under the caption “—Repurchase at the Option of Holders—Asset Sales,” including pursuant to an Asset Swap;

 

(5) any acquisition of assets or Capital Stock solely in exchange for the issuance of Equity Interests (other than Disqualified Stock) of the Company;

 

(6) any Investments received in compromise or resolution of (a) obligations of trade creditors or customers that were incurred in the ordinary course of business of the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries, including pursuant to any plan of reorganization or similar arrangement upon the bankruptcy or insolvency of any trade creditor or customer; or (b) litigation, arbitration or other disputes;

 

(7) Investments represented by Hedging Obligations;

 

(8) loans or advances to officers, directors or employees made in the ordinary course of business of the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary of the Company in an aggregate principal amount not to exceed $5.0 million at any one time outstanding;

 

(9) repurchases of the notes;

 

(10) any Guarantee of Indebtedness permitted to be incurred by the covenant entitled “—Certain Covenants—Incurrence of Indebtedness and Issuance of Preferred Stock” other than a Guarantee of Indebtedness of an Affiliate of the Company that is not a Restricted Subsidiary of the Company;

 

(11) any Investment existing on, or made pursuant to binding commitments existing on, the date of the indenture and any Investment consisting of an extension, modification or renewal of any Investment existing on, or made pursuant to a binding commitment existing on, the date of the indenture; provided that the amount of any such Investment may be increased (a) as required by the terms of such Investment as in existence on the date of the indenture or (b) as otherwise permitted under the indenture;

 

(12) Investments acquired after the date of the indenture as a result of the acquisition by the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary of the Company of another Person, including by way of a merger, amalgamation or consolidation with or into the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries, or all or substantially all of the properties or assets of another Person, in each case, in a transaction that is not prohibited by the covenant described above under the caption “—Certain Covenants—Merger, Consolidation or Sale of Assets” to the extent that such Investments were not made in contemplation of such acquisition, merger, amalgamation or consolidation and were in existence on the date of such acquisition, merger, amalgamation or consolidation;

 

(13) Permitted Business Investments; and

 

(14)

other Investments in any Person other than an Affiliate of the Company that is not a Subsidiary of the Company having an aggregate Fair Market Value (measured on the date each such Investment was made and without giving effect to subsequent changes in value), when taken together with all other Investments made pursuant to this clause (14) that are at the time outstanding not to exceed the greater of (a) $50.0 million and (b) 5.0% of Adjusted Consolidated Net Tangible Assets; provided, however, that if any

 

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  Investment pursuant to this clause (14) is made in any Person that is not a Restricted Subsidiary at the date of the making of such Investment and such Person becomes a Restricted Subsidiary after such date, such Investment shall thereafter be deemed to have been made pursuant to clause (1) above and shall cease to have been made pursuant to this clause (14) for so long as such Person continues to be a Restricted Subsidiary.

“Permitted Liens” means:

 

(1) Liens on assets of the Company or any Guarantor securing Indebtedness and other Obligations under Credit Facilities that was incurred pursuant to clause (1) of the definition of Permitted Debt or securing Hedging Obligations related thereto or securing Obligations with regard to Treasury Management Arrangements;

 

(2) Liens in favor of the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary;

 

(3) Liens on property of a Person existing at the time such Person becomes a Restricted Subsidiary of the Company or is merged with or into or consolidated with the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary of the Company; provided that such Liens were in existence prior to the contemplation of such Person becoming a Restricted Subsidiary of the Company or such merger or consolidation and do not extend to any assets other than those of the Person that becomes a Restricted Subsidiary of the Company or is merged with or into or consolidated with the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary of the Company;

 

(4) Liens on property (including Capital Stock) existing at the time of acquisition of the property by the Company or any Subsidiary of the Company; provided that such Liens were in existence prior to such acquisition and not incurred in contemplation of, such acquisition;

 

(5) Liens to secure the performance of statutory obligations, insurance, surety or appeal bonds, workers’ compensation obligations, bid, plugging and abandonment and performance bonds or other obligations of a like nature incurred in the ordinary course of business (including Liens to secure letters of credit issued to assure payment of such obligations);

 

(6) Liens to secure Indebtedness (including Capital Lease Obligations) permitted by clause (4) of the second paragraph of the covenant entitled “—Certain Covenants—Incurrence of Indebtedness and Issuance of Preferred Stock” covering only the assets acquired with or financed by such Indebtedness;

 

(7) Liens existing on the date of the indenture (other than Liens pursuant to any Credit Facilities);

 

(8) Liens created for the benefit of (or to secure) the notes (or the Note Guarantees);

 

(9) Liens on assets of the Company or any Guarantor securing Indebtedness and other Obligations under the Second Lien Credit Agreement;

 

(10) Liens on insurance policies and proceeds thereof, or other deposits, to secure insurance premium financings;

 

(11) filing of Uniform Commercial Code financing statements as a precautionary measure in connection with operating leases;

 

(12) bankers’ Liens, rights of setoff, Liens arising out of judgments or awards not constituting an Event of Default and notices of lis pendens and associated rights related to litigation being contested in good faith by appropriate proceedings and for which adequate reserves have been made;

 

(13) Liens on cash, Cash Equivalents or other property arising in connection with the defeasance, discharge or redemption of Indebtedness;

 

(14) Liens on specific items of inventory or other goods (and the proceeds thereof) of any Person securing such Person’s obligations in respect of bankers’ acceptances issued or created in the ordinary course of business for the account of such Person to facilitate the purchase, shipment or storage of such inventory or other goods;

 

(15) grants of software and other technology licenses in the ordinary course of business;

 

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(16) Liens arising out of conditional sale, title retention, consignment or similar arrangements for the sale of goods entered into in the ordinary course of business;

 

(17) Liens in respect of Production Payments and Reserve Sales; provided, that such Liens are limited to the property that is subject to such Production Payments and Reserve Sales;

 

(18) Liens arising under oil and gas leases or subleases, assignments, farm-out agreements, farm-in agreements, division orders, contracts for the sale, purchase, exchange, transportation, gathering or processing of Hydrocarbons, unitizations and pooling designations, declarations, orders and agreements, development agreements, joint venture agreements, partnership agreements, operating agreements, royalties, working interests, net profits interests, joint interest billing arrangements, participation agreements, production sales contracts, area of mutual interest agreements, gas balancing or deferred production agreements, injection, repressuring and recycling agreements, salt water or other disposal agreements, seismic or geophysical permits or agreements, licenses, sublicenses and other agreements which are customary in the Oil and Gas Business; provided, however, in all instances that such Liens are limited to the assets that are the subject of the relevant agreement, program, order or contract;

 

(19) Liens to secure performance of Hedging Obligations of the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries entered into in the ordinary course of business and not for speculative purposes;

 

(20) Liens incurred in the ordinary course of business of the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary of the Company with respect to Indebtedness that does not exceed in aggregate principal amount, at any one time outstanding, the greater of (a) $50.0 million and (b) 5.0% of the Company’s Adjusted Consolidated Net Tangible Assets determined as of the date of such incurrence; and

 

(21) any Lien renewing, extending, refinancing or refunding a Lien permitted by this definition other than clauses (1), (9) and (20), provided that (a) the principal amount of the Indebtedness secured by such Lien is not increased except by an amount equal to a reasonable premium or other reasonable amount paid, and fees and expenses reasonably incurred, in connection therewith and by an amount equal to any existing commitments unutilized thereunder and (b) no assets encumbered by any such Lien other than the assets permitted to be encumbered immediately prior to such renewal, extension, refinance or refund are encumbered thereby (other than improvements thereon, accessions thereto and proceeds thereof).

“Permitted Refinancing Indebtedness” means any Indebtedness of the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries or any Disqualified Stock of the Company issued in exchange for, or the net proceeds of which are used to renew, refund, refinance, replace, defease or discharge other Indebtedness of the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries (other than intercompany Indebtedness or Indebtedness pursuant to the Second Lien Credit Agreement) or any Disqualified Stock of the Company; provided that:

 

(1) the principal amount (or accreted value, if applicable), or in the case of Disqualified Stock, the amount thereof determined in accordance with the definition of Disqualified Stock, of such Permitted Refinancing Indebtedness does not exceed the principal amount (or accreted value, if applicable) of the Indebtedness or the amount of the Disqualified Stock renewed, refunded, refinanced, replaced, defeased or discharged (plus all accrued interest on the Indebtedness or accrued and unpaid dividends on the Disqualified Stock, as the case may be, and the amount of all fees and expenses, including premiums, incurred in connection therewith);

 

(2) such Permitted Refinancing Indebtedness has a final maturity date or redemption date, as applicable, that is (a) later than the final maturity date of, and has a Weighted Average Life to Maturity equal to or greater than the Weighted Average Life to Maturity of, the Indebtedness or Disqualified Stock being renewed, refunded, refinanced, replaced, defeased or discharged or (b) more than 90 days after the final maturity date of the notes;

 

(3)

if the Indebtedness being renewed, refunded, refinanced, replaced, defeased or discharged is subordinated in right of payment to the notes or the Note Guarantees, such Permitted Refinancing Indebtedness is subordinated in right of payment to the notes or the Note Guarantees, as applicable, on terms at least as

 

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  favorable to the holders of notes as those contained in the documentation governing the Indebtedness being renewed, refunded, refinanced, replaced, defeased or discharged; and

 

(4) such Indebtedness is incurred (other than by way of a Guarantee) either by the Company or by the Restricted Subsidiary of the Company that was the obligor on the Indebtedness being renewed, refunded, refinanced, replaced, defeased or discharged.

“Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, association, joint-stock company, trust, unincorporated organization, limited liability company or government or other entity.

“Preferred Stock” means, with respect to any Person, any and all preferred or preference stock or other similar Equity Interests (however designated) of such Person whether outstanding or issued after the date of the indenture.

“Production Payments” means Dollar-Denominated Production Payments and Volumetric Production Payments, collectively.

“Production Payments and Reserve Sales” means the grant or transfer by the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries to any Person of a royalty, overriding royalty, net profits interest, Production Payment, partnership or other interest in Oil and Gas Properties, reserves or the right to receive all or a portion of the production or the proceeds from the sale of production attributable to such properties where the holder of such interest has recourse solely to such production or proceeds of production, subject to the obligation of the grantor or transferor to operate and maintain, or cause the subject interests to be operated and maintained, in a reasonably prudent manner or other customary standard or subject to the obligation of the grantor or transferor to indemnify for environmental, title or other matters customary in the Oil and Gas Business, including any such grants or transfers pursuant to incentive compensation programs on terms that are reasonably customary in the Oil and Gas Business for geologists, geophysicists or other providers of technical services to the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries.

“Proved Reserves” means crude oil and natural gas reserves constituting “proved oil and gas reserves” as defined in Rule 4-10 of Regulation S-X of the Securities Act.

“Restricted Investment” means an Investment other than a Permitted Investment.

“Restricted Subsidiary” of a Person means any Subsidiary of the referent Person that is not an Unrestricted Subsidiary.

“S&P” means Standard & Poor’s Ratings Services, and any successor to the ratings business thereof.

“Second Lien Credit Agreement” means the Second Lien Credit Agreement dated as of October 8, 2014 among Callon Petroleum Company, as Borrower, Royal Bank of Canada, as Administrative Agent and as Collateral Agent, and the lenders party thereto (including any related notes, Guarantees, collateral documents, instruments and agreements executed in connection therewith) and, in each case, as amended, restated or modified.

“Significant Subsidiary” means any Restricted Subsidiary that would be a “significant subsidiary” as defined in Article 1, Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X, promulgated pursuant to the Securities Act, as such regulation is in effect on the date of the indenture.

“Special Interest” has the meaning assigned to that term pursuant to the registration rights agreement.

“Stated Maturity” means, with respect to any installment of interest or principal on any series of Indebtedness, the date on which the payment of interest or principal was scheduled to be paid in the documentation governing

 

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such Indebtedness as of the first date it was incurred in compliance with the terms of the indenture, and will not include any contingent obligations to repay, redeem or repurchase any such interest or principal prior to the date originally scheduled for the payment thereof; provided that, in the case of debt securities that are by their terms convertible into Capital Stock (or cash or a combination of cash and Capital Stock based on the value of the Capital Stock) of the Company, any obligation to offer to repurchase such debt securities on a date(s) specified in the original terms of such securities, which obligation is not subject to any condition or contingency, will be treated as a Stated Maturity date of such convertible debt securities.

“Subsidiary” means, with respect to any specified Person:

 

(1) any corporation, association or other business entity (other than a partnership or limited liability company) of which more than 50% of the total voting power of its Voting Stock is at the time owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by that Person or one or more of the other Subsidiaries of that Person (or a combination thereof); and

 

(2) any partnership or limited liability company of which (a) more than 50% of the capital accounts, distribution rights, total equity and voting interests or general and limited partnership interests, as applicable, are owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by such Person or one or more of the other Subsidiaries of that Person or a combination thereof, whether in the form of membership, general, special or limited partnership interests or otherwise, and (b) such Person or any Subsidiary of such Person is a controlling general partner or otherwise controls such entity.

“Treasury Management Arrangement” means any agreement or other arrangement governing the provision of treasury or cash management services, including deposit accounts, overdraft, credit or debit card, funds transfer, automated clearinghouse, zero balance accounts, returned check concentration, controlled disbursement, lockbox, account reconciliation and reporting and trade finance services and other cash management services.

“Treasury Rate” means, in respect of any redemption date, the yield to maturity, as of the time of computation, of the most recently issued United States Treasury securities with a constant maturity (as compiled and published in the most recent Federal Reserve Statistical Release H.15 (519) that has become publicly available at least two business days prior to such time (or, if such Statistical Release is no longer published, any publicly available source of similar market data)) most nearly equal to the period from the redemption date to October 1, 2019; provided, however, that if the period from the redemption date to October 1, 2019, is less than one year, the weekly average yield on actually traded United States Treasury securities adjusted to a constant maturity of one year will be used. The Company will (a) calculate the Treasury Rate no later than the second (and no earlier than the fourth) business day preceding the applicable redemption date (or, in the case of any redemption in connection with a defeasance of the notes or a satisfaction and discharge of the indenture, on the business day preceding such event) and (b) prior to such redemption date, file with the trustee a statement setting forth the Applicable Premium and the Treasury Rate and showing the calculation of each in reasonable detail.

“Unrestricted Subsidiary” means any Subsidiary of the Company (including any newly acquired or newly formed Subsidiary or a Person becoming a Subsidiary through merger or consolidation or Investment therein) that is designated by the Board of Directors of the Company as an Unrestricted Subsidiary pursuant to a resolution of the Board of Directors, but only to the extent that such Subsidiary:

 

(1) has no Indebtedness other than Non-Recourse Debt;

 

(2) except as permitted by the covenant described above under the caption “—Certain Covenants—Transactions with Affiliates,” is not party to any agreement, contract, arrangement or understanding with the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary of the Company unless the terms of any such agreement, contract, arrangement or understanding are no less favorable to the Company or such Restricted Subsidiary than those that might be obtained at the time from Persons who are not Affiliates of the Company;

 

(3) is a Person with respect to which neither the Company nor any of its Restricted Subsidiaries has any direct or indirect obligation (a) to subscribe for additional Equity Interests or (b) to maintain or preserve such Person’s financial condition or to cause such Person to achieve any specified levels of operating results; and

 

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(4) has not Guaranteed or otherwise directly or indirectly provided credit support for any Indebtedness of the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries, except to the extent such Guarantee would be released upon such designation.

All Subsidiaries of an Unrestricted Subsidiary shall also be Unrestricted Subsidiaries.

“Volumetric Production Payments” means production payment obligations recorded as deferred revenue in accordance with GAAP, together with all undertakings and obligations in connection therewith.

“Voting Stock” of any specified Person as of any date means the Capital Stock of such Person entitling the holders thereof (whether at all times or only so long as no senior class of Capital Stock has voting power by reason of any contingency) to vote in the election of members of the Board of Directors of such Person; provided that with respect to a limited partnership or other entity which does not have a Board of Directors, Voting Stock means the Capital Stock of the general partner of such limited partnership or other business entity with the ultimate authority to manage the business and operations of such Person.

“Weighted Average Life to Maturity” means, when applied to any Indebtedness or Disqualified Stock at any date, the number of years obtained by dividing:

 

(1) the sum of the products obtained by multiplying (a) the amount of each then remaining installment, sinking fund, serial maturity or other required payments of principal, including payment at final maturity or redemption, in respect of the Indebtedness or Disqualified Stock, by (b) the number of years (calculated to the nearest one-twelfth) that will elapse between such date and the making of such payment; by

 

(2) the then outstanding aggregate amount of such Indebtedness or Disqualified Stock.

 

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CERTAIN UNITED STATES FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

The following is a summary of certain material U.S. federal income tax considerations relating to the exchange of old notes for new notes pursuant to the exchange offer. As used in this summary, the term “notes” means the old notes and the new notes. This summary is based on the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), Treasury Regulations, revenue rulings, administrative interpretations and judicial decisions now in effect, all of which are subject to change possibly with retroactive effect. Except as specifically set forth herein, this summary deals only with old notes held as capital assets within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code. This summary does not purport to address all federal income tax considerations that may be relevant to holders in light of their particular circumstances or to holders subject to special tax rules, such as banks, insurance companies or other financial institutions, dealers in securities or foreign currencies, tax-exempt investors, or persons holding the old notes as part of a hedging transaction, straddle, conversion transaction, or other integrated transaction.

We have not sought any ruling from the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) or an opinion of counsel with respect to the statements made and the conclusions reached in the following summary. As such, there can be no assurance that the IRS will agree with such statements and conclusions.

All persons that exchange old notes for new notes in the exchange offer are urged to consult their own tax advisors with regard to the application of the U.S. federal income tax laws to their particular situations as well as any tax consequences arising under the laws of any state, local or foreign jurisdiction.

Consequences of the Exchange Offer

The exchange of the old notes for the new notes in the exchange offer will not be treated as an “exchange” for U.S. federal income tax purposes, because the new notes will not be considered to differ materially in kind or extent from the old notes. Accordingly, the exchange of old notes for new notes will not be a taxable event for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Moreover, the new notes will have the same tax attributes as the old notes exchanged therefor and the same tax consequences to holders as the old notes.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

Based on interpretations by the staff of the SEC in no-action letters issued to third parties, we believe that you may transfer new notes issued under the exchange offer in exchange for the old notes if:

 

    any new notes to be received by you will be acquired in the ordinary course of your business; and

 

    you have no arrangement or understanding with any person or entity to participate in the distribution (within the meaning of the Securities Act) of the new notes in violation of the provisions of the Securities Act.

You may not participate in the exchange offer unless:

 

    you are not an “affiliate,” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act, of us or our subsidiary guarantors; and

 

    if you are a broker-dealer that will receive new notes for your own account in exchange for old notes that were acquired as a result of market-making or other trading activities, then you agree to deliver this prospectus (or, to the extent permitted by law, make this prospectus available to purchasers) in connection with any resale of the new notes.

Each broker-dealer that receives new notes for its own account pursuant to the exchange offer must acknowledge that it will deliver this prospectus in connection with any resale of such new notes. To date, the staff of the SEC has taken the position that broker-dealers may fulfill their prospectus delivery requirements with respect to transactions involving an exchange of securities such as this exchange offer, other than a resale of an unsold allotment from the original sale of the old notes, with this prospectus. This prospectus, as it may be amended or supplemented from time to time, may be used by a broker-dealer in connection with resales of new notes received for their own account in exchange for old notes where such old notes were acquired as a result of market-making activities or other trading activities. We have agreed that, for a period ending on             , 2017, we will make this prospectus, as amended or supplemented, available to any broker-dealer for use in connection with any such resale. In addition, until such date, all dealers effecting transactions in new notes may be required to deliver this prospectus.

We are entitled under the registration rights agreements to suspend the use of this prospectus by broker-dealers if, in our good faith determination, the continued effectiveness of the registration statement and the use of this prospectus would require the public disclosure of material non-public information.

If we suspend the use of this prospectus, the period referred to above during which we have agreed to make this prospectus, as amended or supplemented, available to any broker-dealer for use in connection with certain resales, will be extended by a number of days equal to the period of the suspension and we and the Guarantor will pay additional interest, if required, pursuant to the registration rights agreements.

If you wish to new notes for your old notes in the exchange offer, you will be required to make representations to us as described in “The Exchange Offer—Procedures for Tendering—Your Representations to Us” in this prospectus. As indicated in the letter of transmittal, you will be deemed to have made these representations by tendering your old notes in the exchange offer. In addition, if you are a broker-dealer who receives new notes for your own account in exchange for old notes that were acquired by you as a result of market-making activities or other trading activities, you will be required to acknowledge, in the same manner, that you will deliver this prospectus in connection with any resale by you of such new notes.

We will not receive any proceeds from any sale of new notes by broker-dealers. New Notes received by broker-dealers for their own account pursuant to the exchange offer may be sold from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

    in the over-the-counter market;

 

    in negotiated transactions;

 

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    through the writing of options on the new notes; or

 

    a combination of such methods of resale; at market prices prevailing at the time of resale, at prices related to such prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices.

Any such resale may be made directly to purchasers or to or through brokers or dealers who may receive compensation in the form of commissions or concessions from any such broker-dealer or the purchasers of any such new notes. Any broker-dealer that resells new notes that were received by it for its own account pursuant to the exchange offer and any broker or dealer that participates in a distribution of such new notes may be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act. Each letter of transmittal states that by acknowledging that it will deliver and by delivering this prospectus, a broker-dealer will not be deemed to admit that it is an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act.

For a period of 180 days after the consummation of the exchange offer, the Company will promptly send additional copies of this prospectus and any amendment or supplement to this prospectus to any broker-dealer that requests such documents as provided in the Letter of Transmittal. The Company has agreed to pay all expenses incident to the exchange offer (including the expenses of one counsel for the Holders of the old notes) other than commissions or concessions of any brokers or dealers and will indemnify the Holders of the old notes (including any broker-dealers) against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. We also filed a registration statement on Form S-4, including exhibits, under the Securities Act with respect to the new notes offered by this prospectus. This prospectus is a part of the registration statement, but does not contain all of the information included in the registration statement or the exhibits. You may read and copy the registration statement and any other document that we file at the SEC’s public reference room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington D.C. 20549. You can call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the operation of the public reference room. You can also find our public filings with the SEC on the internet at a web site maintained by the SEC located at http://www.sec.gov.

We are “incorporating by reference” specified documents that we file with the SEC, which means:

 

    incorporated documents are considered part of this prospectus;

 

    we are disclosing important information to you by referring you to those documents; and

 

    information we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede information contained in this prospectus.

This prospectus incorporates by reference any future filings made with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, between the date of the initial registration statement and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement and the documents listed below that we have previously filed with the SEC:

 

    our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on February 15, February 28 and April 13, 2017; and

 

    our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016; and

 

    our Proxy Statement for the 2017 Annual Meeting of Stockholders.

We also incorporate by reference all documents that we file with the SEC on or after the effective time of this prospectus pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act and prior to the sale of all the securities registered hereunder or the termination of the registration statement. Nothing in this prospectus shall be deemed to incorporate information furnished but not filed with the SEC.

 

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You may request a copy of any of these filings, at no cost, by request directed to us at the following address or telephone number:

Callon Petroleum Company

Investor Relations

200 North Canal Street

Natchez, Mississippi 39120

(601) 442-1601

You should rely only upon the information provided in this prospectus or incorporated by reference into this prospectus. If information in incorporated documents conflicts with information in this prospectus you should rely on the most recent information. If information in an incorporated document conflicts with information in another incorporated document, you should rely on the most recent incorporated document. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus or any document incorporated by reference is accurate as of any date other than the date of those documents. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. You can also find these filings on our website at www.callon.com. However, we are not incorporating the information on our website other than these filings into this prospectus.

LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the securities offered hereby will be passed upon for us by Haynes and Boone, LLP, Houston, Texas.

EXPERTS

The financial statements as of and for the year ending December 31, 2016 and management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2016 incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in this registration statement have been so incorporated by reference in reliance upon the reports of Grant Thornton LLP, independent registered public accountants, upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

The consolidated financial statements of Callon Petroleum Company at December 31, 2015, and for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2015, appearing in Callon Petroleum Company’s Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2016, have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their report thereon, included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such report given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

The information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus regarding estimated quantities of proved reserves as of December 31, 2016 and 2015, using SEC guidelines, were prepared or derived from estimates prepared by DeGolyer and MacNaughton, independent petroleum engineers. These estimates are included in this prospectus in reliance on the authority of such firm as experts in these matters.

 

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ANNEX A:

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

CALLON PETROLEUM COMPANY

OFFER TO EXCHANGE ANY AND ALL OUTSTANDING

6.125% SENIOR NOTES DUE 2024

THAT HAVE NOT BEEN REGISTERED UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

(CUSIP NOS. 13123X AR3 & U1303X AC0)

FOR

6.125% SENIOR NOTES DUE 2024

THAT HAVE BEEN REGISTERED UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

PURSUANT TO THE EXCHANGE OFFER AND PROSPECTUS DATED , 2017

(CUSIP NO.         )

Pursuant to the Exchange Offer and Prospectus dated             , 2017

The Exchange Agent for the Exchange Offer is:

By Mail, Overnight Courier or in Person:

U.S. Bank National Association

Attn: Specialized Finance

111 Fillmore Avenue

St. Paul, MN 55107-1402

By Facsimile (for Eligible Institutions only):

651-495-8158

Attention: Specialized Finance

For Information or Confirmation by

Electronic Mail:

escrowexchangepayments@usbank.com

IF YOU WISH TO EXCHANGE CURRENTLY OUTSTANDING 6.125% SENIOR NOTES DUE 2024 (THE “OLD NOTES”) FOR AN EQUAL AGGREGATE PRINCIPAL AMOUNT OF 6.125% SENIOR NOTES DUE 2024 PURSUANT TO THE EXCHANGE OFFER, YOU MUST VALIDLY TENDER (AND NOT WITHDRAW) OLD NOTES TO THE EXCHANGE AGENT PRIOR TO 5:00 P.M. NEW YORK CITY TIME ON             , 2017 BY CAUSING AN AGENT’S MESSAGE TO BE RECEIVED BY THE EXCHANGE AGENT PRIOR TO SUCH TIME.

The undersigned hereby acknowledges receipt of the prospectus, dated             , 2017 (the “Prospectus”), of Callon Petroleum Company, a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and this Letter of Transmittal (the “Letter of Transmittal”), which together describe the Company’s offer (the “Exchange Offer”) pursuant to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), to exchange its issued and outstanding 6.125% Senior Notes due 2024 (the “Old Notes”) for a like principal amount of its 6.125% Senior Notes due 2024 (the “New Notes”).

The Company reserves the right, at any time or from time to time, to extend the Exchange Offer at its discretion, in which event the term “Expiration Time” shall mean the latest time and date to which the Company extends the Exchange Offer. To extend the Exchange Offer, the Company will notify the Exchange Agent of any

 

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extension. The Company will notify the holders of Old Notes of the extension via a press release issued no later than 9:00 a.m. New York City time on the business day after the previously scheduled Expiration Time.

This Letter of Transmittal is to be used by holders of the Old Notes. Tender of Old Notes is to be made according to the Automated Tender Offer Program (“ATOP”) of The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) pursuant to the procedures set forth in the Prospectus under the caption “The Exchange Offer—Procedures for Tendering.” DTC participants that are accepting the Exchange Offer must transmit their acceptance to DTC, which will verify the acceptance and execute a book-entry delivery to the Exchange Agent’s DTC account. DTC will then send a computer-generated message known as an “agent’s message” to the exchange agent for its acceptance. For you to validly tender your Old Notes in the Exchange Offer, the Exchange Agent must receive, prior to the Expiration Time, an agent’s message under the ATOP procedures that confirms that:

 

    DTC has received your instructions to tender your Old Notes; and

 

    you agree to be bound by the terms of this Letter of Transmittal.

By using the ATOP procedures to tender Old Notes, you will not be required to deliver this Letter of Transmittal to the Exchange Agent. However, you will be bound by its terms, and you will be deemed to have made the acknowledgments and the representations and warranties it contains, just as if you had signed it.

PLEASE READ THE ACCOMPANYING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

Ladies and Gentlemen:

1. By tendering Old Notes in the Exchange Offer, you acknowledge receipt of the Prospectus and this Letter of Transmittal.

2. By tendering Old Notes in the Exchange Offer, you represent and warrant that you have full authority to tender the Old Notes described above and will, upon request, execute and deliver any additional documents deemed by the Company to be necessary or desirable to complete the tender of Old Notes.

3. The tender of the Old Notes pursuant to all of the procedures set forth in the Prospectus will constitute an agreement between you and the Company as to the terms and conditions set forth in the Prospectus.

4. The Exchange Offer is being made in reliance upon interpretations contained in no-action letters issued to third parties by the staff of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”), including Exxon Capital Holdings Corp., Commission No-Action Letter (available May 13, 1988), Morgan Stanley & Co., Inc., Commission No-Action Letter (available June 5, 1991) and Shearman & Sterling, Commission No-Action Letter (available July 2, 1993), that the New Notes issued in exchange for the Old Notes pursuant to the Exchange Offer may be offered for resale, resold and otherwise transferred by holders thereof (other than a broker-dealer who purchased Old Notes exchanged for such New Notes directly from the Company to resell pursuant to Rule 144A or any other available exemption under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) and any such holder that is an “affiliate” of the Company within the meaning of Rule 405 under the Securities Act), without compliance with the registration and prospectus delivery provisions of the Securities Act, provided that such New Notes are acquired in the ordinary course of such holders’ business and such holders are not participating in, and have no arrangement with any person to participate in, the distribution of such New Notes.

5. By tendering Old Notes in the Exchange Offer, you represent and warrant that:

a. the New Notes acquired pursuant to the Exchange Offer are being obtained in the ordinary course of your business, whether or not you are the holder;

b. neither you nor any such other person is engaging in or intends to engage in a distribution of such New Notes;

 

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c. neither you nor any such other person has an arrangement or understanding with any person to participate in the distribution of such New Notes;

d. neither you nor any such other person is an “affiliate,” as such term is defined under Rule 405 promulgated under the Securities Act, of the Company or the Guarantors; and

e. if you are a broker-dealer that will receive New Notes for your own account in exchange for Old Notes, you acquired those Old Notes as a result of market-making activities or other trading activities, you will deliver the prospectus, as required by law, in connection with any resale of the New Notes.

6. If you are a broker-dealer that will receive New Notes for your own account in exchange for Old Notes that were acquired as a result of market-making activities or other trading activities, you acknowledge, by tendering Old Notes in the Exchange Offer, that you will deliver a prospectus meeting the requirements of the Securities Act in connection with any resale of such New Notes; however, by so acknowledging and by delivering a prospectus, you will not be deemed to admit that you are an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act. If you are a broker-dealer and Old Notes held for your own account were not acquired as a result of market-making or other trading activities, such Old Notes cannot be exchanged pursuant to the Exchange Offer.

7. Any of your obligations hereunder shall be binding upon your successors, assigns, executors, administrators, trustees in bankruptcy and legal and personal representatives.

☐ CHECK HERE IF YOU ARE A BROKER-DEALER AND WISH TO RECEIVE 10 ADDITIONAL COPIES OF THE PROSPECTUS AND 10 COPIES OF ANY AMENDMENTS OR SUPPLEMENTS THERETO.

Name:                                                                                                                                    

Address:                                                                                                                                 

INSTRUCTIONS

FORMING PART OF THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF THE EXCHANGE OFFER

1. Book-Entry Confirmations.

Any confirmation of a book-entry transfer to the Exchange Agent’s account at DTC of Old Notes tendered by book-entry transfer (a “Book-Entry Confirmation”), as well as an agent’s message, and any other documents required by this Letter of Transmittal, must be received by the Exchange Agent at its address set forth herein prior to 5:00 P.M. New York City time on             , 2017.

2. Partial Tenders.

Tenders of Old Notes will be accepted only in denominations of $2,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof. The entire principal amount of Old Notes delivered to the Exchange Agent will be deemed to have been tendered unless otherwise communicated to the Exchange Agent. If the entire principal amount of all Old Notes is not tendered, then Old Notes for the principal amount of Old Notes not tendered and New Notes issued in exchange for any Old Notes accepted will be delivered to the holder via the facilities of DTC promptly after the Old Notes are accepted for exchange.

3. Validity of Tenders.

The Company will determine in its sole discretion all questions as to the validity, form, eligibility, time of receipt, acceptance of tendered Old Notes and withdrawal of tendered Old Notes. The Company’s determination

 

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will be final and binding. The Company reserves the absolute right to reject any Old Notes not properly tendered or any Old Notes the Company’s acceptance of which might, in the opinion of counsel for the Company, be unlawful. The Company also reserves the absolute right to waive any defect, irregularities or conditions of tender as to particular Old Notes. The Company’s interpretation of the terms and conditions of the Exchange Offer (including the instructions on this Letter of Transmittal) will be final and binding on all parties. Unless waived, all defects or irregularities in connection with tenders of Old Notes must be cured within such time as the Company shall determine. Although the Company intends to notify holders of defects or irregularities with respect to tenders of Old Notes, neither the Company, the Exchange Agent, nor any other person will incur any liability for failure to give such notification. Tenders of Old Notes will not be deemed made until such defects or irregularities have been cured or waived. Any Old Notes received by the Exchange Agent that are not properly tendered and as to which the defects or irregularities have not been cured or waived will be returned by the Exchange Agent to the tendering promptly following the Expiration Time.

 

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Callon Petroleum

Company

Offer to Exchange All Outstanding, Unregistered

400,000,000 6.125% Senior Notes due 2024

For New, Registered

400,000,000 6.125% Senior Notes due 2024

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

 

 

 


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PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 20. Indemnification of Directors and Executive Officers.

Section 145 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, pursuant to which the company is incorporated, provides generally and in pertinent part that a Delaware corporation may indemnify its directors, officers, employees and agents (or persons serving at the request of the company as a director, officer, employee or agent of another entity) against expenses, judgments, fines, and settlements actually and reasonably incurred by them in connection with any civil, criminal, administrative, or investigative suit or action except actions by or in the right of the corporation if, in connection with the matters in issue, they acted in good faith and in a manner they reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and in connection with any criminal suit or proceeding, if in connection with the matters in issue, they had no reasonable cause to believe their conduct was unlawful. Section 145 further provides that in connection with the defense or settlement of any action by or in the right of the corporation, a Delaware corporation may indemnify its directors, officers, employees and agents (or persons serving at the request of the Company as a director, officer, employee or agent of another entity) against expenses actually and reasonably incurred by them if, in connection with the matters in issue, they acted in good faith and in a manner they reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, except that no indemnification may be made in respect of any claim, issue, or matter as to which such person has been adjudged liable to the corporation unless the Delaware Court of Chancery or other court in which such action or suit is brought approves such indemnification. Section 145 further permits a Delaware corporation to grant its directors and officers additional rights of indemnification through bylaw provisions and otherwise, and or purchase indemnity insurance on behalf of its directors and officers.

Article Eight of the certificate of incorporation, as amended, of Callon Petroleum Company, and Article IX of the bylaws, as amended, of Callon Petroleum Company and Callon Petroleum Operating Company provide, in general, that each company may indemnify its directors, officers, employees and agents (or persons serving at the request of the company as a director, officer, employee or agent of another entity) to the full extent of Delaware law.

 

Item 21. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.

The exhibits listed in the accompanying Exhibit Index are filed or incorporated by reference as part of this Registration Statement.

 

Item 22. Undertakings

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

(i) To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

(ii) To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement;

 

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(iii) To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

(2) That, for the purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post- effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

(4) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

(i) If the registrant is relying on Rule 430B (§ 230.430B of this chapter):

(A) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) (§ 230.424(b)(3) of this chapter) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

(B) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) (§ 230.424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) of this chapter) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) (§ 230.415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) of this chapter) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities:

That in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

(i) Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424 (§ 230.424 of this chapter);

(ii) Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

(iii) The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

(iv) Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 

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(6) That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(7) To file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act (“Act”) in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Act.

(8) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

(9) To deliver or cause to be delivered with the prospectus, to each person to whom the prospectus is sent or given, the latest annual report to security holders that is incorporated by reference in the prospectus and furnished pursuant to and meeting the requirements of Rule 14a-3 or Rule 14c-3 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934; and, where interim financial information required to be presented by Article 3 of Regulation S-X are not set forth in the prospectus, to deliver, or cause to be delivered to each person to whom the prospectus is sent or given, the latest quarterly report that is specifically incorporated by reference in the prospectus to provide such interim financial information.

(10) To respond to requests for information that is incorporated by reference into the prospectus pursuant to Items 4, 10(b), 11, or 13 of this Form, within one business day of receipt of such request, and to send the incorporated documents by first class mail or other equally prompt means. This includes information contained in documents filed subsequent to the effective date of the registration statement through the date of responding to the request.

(11) To supply by means of a post-effective amendment all information concerning a transaction, and the company being acquired involved therein, that was not the subject of and included in the registration statement when it became effective.

 

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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-4 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized in the City of Houston, State of Texas on April 13, 2017.

 

CALLON PETROLEUM COMPANY
By:  

/s/ Fred L. Callon

  Fred L. Callon
  Chief Executive Officer

 

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POWER OF ATTORNEY

KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS, that each individual whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints Fred L. Callon and Joseph C. Gatto, Jr., and each of them, as his true and lawful attorney-in-fact and agent, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for him and in his name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign this registration statement on Form S-4 and any and all amendments to this registration statement (including post-effective amendments) of Callon Petroleum Company and to file same, with all exhibits thereto, and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, and/or any state securities department or any other federal or state agency or governmental authority granting unto such attorneys-in-fact and agents, and each of them, full power to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in and about the premises, as fully and to all extents and purposes as he might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that such attorneys-in-fact and agents or any of them, or their or his substitute or substitutes, may do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the Registrant has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, on the 13th day of April, 2017.

 

Signature    Title with Callon Petroleum Company

/s/ Fred L. Callon

Fred L. Callon

   Chief Executive Officer and Director (Principal Executive Officer)

/s/ Joseph C. Gatto, Jr.

Joseph C. Gatto, Jr.

   President, Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer (Principal Financial Officer)

/s/ Mitzi P. Conn

Mitzi P. Conn

   Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer
(Principal Accounting Officer)

/s/ L. Richard Flury

L. Richard Flury

   Director

/s/ Larry D. McVay

Larry D. McVay

   Director

/s/ Anthony J. Nocchiero

Anthony J. Nocchiero

   Director

/s/ John C. Wallace

John C. Wallace

   Director

/s/ Matthew R. Bob

Matthew R. Bob

   Director

/s/ James M. Trimble

James M. Trimble

   Director

/s/ Michael Finch

Michael Finch

   Director

 

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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-4 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized in the City of Houston, State of Texas on April 13, 2017.

 

CALLON PETROLEUM OPERATING COMPANY
By:  

/s/ Fred L. Callon

  Fred L. Callon
  Chief Executive Officer

 

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POWER OF ATTORNEY

KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS, that each individual whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints Fred L. Callon and Joseph C. Gatto, Jr., and each of them, as his true and lawful attorney-in-fact and agent, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for him and in his name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign this registration statement on Form S-4 and any and all amendments to this registration statement (including post-effective amendments) of Callon Petroleum Operating Company and to file same, with all exhibits thereto, and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, and/or any state securities department or any other federal or state agency or governmental authority granting unto such attorneys-in-fact and agents, and each of them, full power to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in and about the premises, as fully and to all extents and purposes as he might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that such attorneys-in-fact and agents or any of them, or their or his substitute or substitutes, may do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the Registrant has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, on the 13th day of April, 2017.

 

Signature    Title with Callon Petroleum Operating Company

/s/ Fred L. Callon

Fred L. Callon

   Chief Executive Officer and Director (Principal Executive Officer)

/s/ Joseph C. Gatto, Jr.

Joseph C. Gatto, Jr.

   President, Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer (Principal Financial Officer)

/s/ Mitzi P. Conn

Mitzi P. Conn

  

Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer

(Principal Accounting Officer)

/s/ L. Richard Flury

L. Richard Flury

   Director

/s/ Larry D. McVay

Larry D. McVay

   Director

/s/ Anthony J. Nocchiero

Anthony J. Nocchiero

   Director

/s/ John C. Wallace

John C. Wallace

   Director

/s/ Matthew R. Bob

Matthew R. Bob

   Director

/s/ James M. Trimble

James M. Trimble

   Director

/s/ Michael Finch

Michael Finch

   Director

 

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INDEX TO EXHIBITS

The following is a list of exhibits filed as a part of this registration statement.

 

Exhibit
Number

 

Description

  4.   Instruments defining the rights of security holders, including indentures
  4.1   Specimen Common Stock Certificate (incorporated by reference from Exhibit 4.1 of the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-4, filed on August 4, 1994, Reg. No. 33-82408)
  4.2   Certificate for the Company’s 10.00% Series A Cumulative Preferred Stock (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 of the Company’s Form 8-A, filed on May 23, 2013)
  4.3   Indenture of 6.125% Senior Notes Due 2024, dated as of October 3, 2016, among Callon Petroleum Company, the Guarantors party thereto and U.S. Bank National Association, as Trustee (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 of the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed on October 4, 2016)
  4.4   Registration Rights Agreement of 6.125% Senior Notes Due 2024, dated October 3, 2016, among Callon Petroleum Company, Callon Petroleum Operating Company and J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, as representative of the Initial Purchasers named on Annex E thereto (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.2 of the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed on October 4, 2016)
  5.   Opinion re legality
  5.1(a)   Opinion of Haynes and Boone, LLP
12.   Statements re computation of ratios
12.1(a)   Statements re computation of Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges
23.   Consents of experts and counsel
23.1(a)   Consent of Haynes and Boone, LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1)
23.2(a)   Consent of Grant Thornton LLP
23.3(a)   Consent of Ernst & Young LLP
23.4(a)   Consent of DeGolyer and MacNaughton, Inc.
24.   Power of Attorney
24.1 (a)   Power of attorney (included on the signature pages of this Registration Statement)
25.   Statement of Eligibility of Trustee
25.1(a)   Statement of Eligibility and Qualification on Form T-1 of Trustee
99.   Additional Exhibits
99.1(a)   Form of Letter of Transmittal (included as Annex A to the prospectus forming a part of this registration statement)

 

* Not applicable to this filing
(a) Filed herewith.

 

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